Production and Engine Performance and Emission Evaluation of Karanja and Jatropha-Based Biodiesel
Emissions from automotive engines have caused major impact on environment and are disturbing the ecological system. The major motive force behind this research is to find the alternative fuel for the future mobility and more independence from the fossil fuels. Biodiesel fuel produced from non-edible oil like jatropha and karanja could be used to replace at least a portion of the automotive fuel consumed worldwide.
This paper will be comprised of three sections. In the first section, oil was extracted from karanja and jatropha feedstocks. Also, the effect of various oil-expelling parameters was observed and optimized. In the second part, transesterification of extracted oil was carried out. For that, titration process was used to find out free fatty acids (FFAs) (percentage of oil. Innovative method has been followed to convert oil into biodiesel without knowing the chemical properties of oil. Single-step transesterification process was used for jatropha oil as FFA percentage of produced Jatropha oil is 1.5% (< 2%). And a two-step transesterification process was used for karanja oil as FFA percentage of karanja oil is 3.7% (>2%). Acid catalyst H2SO4 was used for pre-esterification, and base catalyst KOH was used for transesterification process. Properties of produced biodiesel were tested and found to meet ASTM biodiesel standards. In the third part, produced biodiesel of karanja and jatropha were tested in CI engine with B10 and B20 blends. Results show reduction in CO and HC emissions with BSFC and power values almost equal to diesel run. NOx emission was increased slightly with karanja biodiesel blends and decreased with jatropha biodiesel blends. In the present work, up to B20 blends of biodiesel have been tasted. One can check performance and emission parameters by using up to B100 blends of biodiesel. Also, the effect of variation of injection timing and injection pressure can be study to improve the performance of diesel engine with biodiesel as a fuel.
KeywordsJatropha Karanja Biodiesel Expelling Transesterification Performance and emission testing
The authors are grateful to the ARAI, Pune (The Automotive Research Association of India) for providing oil expelling and biodiesel production facility and for sponsoring the whole project. Authors are also grateful to VELTECH University, Chennai, for providing engine testing facility for research work. Authors are also grateful to the team of Automotive Materials Laboratory, ARAI to help us in testing for fuel properties as per standards.
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