Both medical and economic concerns have stimulated the development of ICS for use in the cardiovascular system. It is a powerful tool for both biomedical research and clinical applications. ICS offers a promising means to cost-effectively examine and improve the performance of medical devices for the cardiovascular system, thereby reducing the cost of the product development process. Clinically, it is a noninvasive approach that can be used to augment other medical imaging and diagnostic techniques, thereby improving surgical outcomes and patient care. Moreover, ICS brings many new concepts to cardiovascular research, as well as applications such as virtual surgery, predictive medicine, and surgical planning. However, the complexity of the cardiovascular system poses unique challenges.