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Cancer Therapies: Current Scenario, Management, and Safety Aspects

  • Shivaswamy Santosh
  • Manasa Deepa Rajagopalan
  • Bangalore Acharlu Pallavi
  • Gudepalya Renukaiah Rudramurthy
  • Valluru Rajashekar
  • Katta Annaiah Sridhar
  • Mallappa Kumara Swamy
Chapter

Abstract

Cancer is a disease state in which abnormal cells proliferate uninhibitedly and might spread all over the body. There are more than 100 types of cancers which are categorized based on the affected tissue or organ of the human body. At present, several methods of cancer treatments including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapies are available. These therapies aim to stop or slower the growth rate of cancer cells, however incapable to completely cure cancers. Chemotherapy employs cytotoxic drugs that prevent, weaken, or reduce the reappearance of cancer cells and thereby control the development and progression of cancer. These anticancer compounds work in various ways such as impairing mitosis; targeting the cancer cells’ energy source, enzymes, and hormones; preventing the angiogenesis process; and triggering apoptosis activity. Based on the nature of cancer, anticancer compounds are administered either single or in combination through oral, parenteral (intraperitoneal injection, intravenous injection), and other topical routes. These chemo-drugs exert the beneficial pharmacological action on cancer cell, but they also affect the healthy cells and lead to toxicity and clinical side effects in patients. These adverse effects vary depending on the type/group of drugs administered. Some of the common undesirable properties of anticancer compounds include weakness, xeroderma (dry skin), erythema (skin redness), alopecia (hair loss), loss of appetite, weight loss, and numbness. This chapter provides an idea about various toxicological side effects and management of these side effects in different types of cancer therapies.

Keywords

Drug delivery Toxicity Cancer therapy Permeability retention Photodynamic therapy Secondary malignancy Side effects 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors are highly thankful to the editors for giving us this opportunity and to the innovators in the field of cancer treatment.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shivaswamy Santosh
    • 1
  • Manasa Deepa Rajagopalan
    • 2
  • Bangalore Acharlu Pallavi
    • 3
  • Gudepalya Renukaiah Rudramurthy
    • 4
  • Valluru Rajashekar
    • 2
  • Katta Annaiah Sridhar
    • 2
  • Mallappa Kumara Swamy
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Head and Neck CancerColoumbia Asia HospitalBengaluruIndia
  2. 2.Department of PharmaceuticsEast West College of PharmacyBengaluruIndia
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyM.V.J. Medical CollegeBengaluruIndia
  4. 4.Department of BiotechnologyEast West First Grade CollegeBengaluruIndia
  5. 5.Department of Crop Science, Faculty of AgricultureUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia

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