Advertisement

Traditional Medicinal Plants and Their Therapeutic Potential Against Major Cancer Types

  • Kai Wei Lee
  • Siew Mooi Ching
  • Fan Kee Hoo
  • Vasudevan Ramachandran
  • Mallappa Kumara Swamy
Chapter

Abstract

Cancer is highly prevalent in the world and affects millions of people. Lung, prostate, colorectal, and breast cancers are the most commonly identified among cancer subjects and account for more than half of all cancer deaths. Surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy are the typical treatments for cancer; however, the side effects of these treatments can be excessive and vary widely according to subject’s health issues. At present, traditional herbal therapy can be used in conjunction with conventional treatments. The use of anticancer plants in medicine is becoming increasingly relevant, as they can reduce the side effects of medical treatments and improve patients’ quality of life. Various traditional medical practices, including Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, Kampo, Unani, and Korean medicine, use herbs as major ingredients of their practice, and the effectiveness of these traditional medicines has been acknowledged after modern scientific testing in many cases. The records of traditional anticancer plants used among various tribe, races, and nationalities are abundant. For instance, Liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and snake-needle grass (Oldenlandia diffusa) served with hot water can help patients suffering from lung cancer. Likewise, Astragalus membranaceus, Podophyllum hexandrum, Podophyllum petaton, and Arctium lappa are commonly used all around the world to treat breast cancer. Colorectal cancer is treated with ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), garlic (Allium sativum), and ginger (Zingiber officinale). Therefore, there is an urgent need to document these potential ethnomedicinal plants in terms of anticancer drug discovery research. The scientific justification for these plants having a recuperative function in cancer must also be established. The main objective of this chapter is to provide an overview on anticancer plants used in traditional medicine to treat lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and prostate cancer.

Keywords

Cancer Drugs Ethnomedicine Herbal therapy Medicinal plants 

References

  1. Abdullah S, Abidin SAZ, Murad NA, Makpol S, Ngah WZW, Yusof YAM (2010) Ginger extract (Zingiber officinale) triggers apoptosis and G0/G1 cells arrest in HCT 116 and HT 29 colon cancer cell lines. Afr J Biochem Res 4:134–142Google Scholar
  2. Aggarwal BB, Kumar A, Bharti AC (2003) Anticancer potential of curcumin: preclinical and clinical studies. Anticancer Res 23:363–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Agrawal DK, Mishra PK (2010) Curcumin and its analogues: potential anticancer agents. Med Res Rev 30:818–860PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmad I, Aqil F, Owais M (2006) Modern phytomedicine: turning medicinal plants into drugs. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akhtar MS, Birhanu G, Demisse S (2014a) Antimicrobial activity of Piper nigrum L. and Cassia didymobotyra L. leaf extract on selected food borne pathogens. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 4:S911–S919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Akhtar MS, Degaga B, Azam T (2014b) Antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from medicinal plants against the pathogenic microorganisms: a review. Biol Sci Pharm Res 2:1–7Google Scholar
  7. Akram M, Shahab-Uddin AA, Usmanghani K, Hannan A, Mohiuddin E, Asif M (2010) Curcuma longa and curcumin: a review article. Rom J Biol Plant Biol 55:65–70Google Scholar
  8. Al-Snafi AE (2016) The pharmacological activities of Cuminum cyminum-a review. IOSR J Pharm 6:46–65Google Scholar
  9. Aly AM, Al-Alousi L, Salem HA (2005) Licorice: a possible anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer drug. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech 6:E74–E82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arumugam G, Swamy MK, Sinniah UR (2016) Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng: botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and nutritional significance. Molecules 21:369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Asl MN, Hosseinzadeh H (2008) Review of pharmacological effects of Glycyrrhiza sp. and its bioactive compounds. Phytother Res 22:709–724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Aung TN, Qu Z, Kortschak RD, Adelson DL (2017) Understanding the effectiveness of natural compound mixtures in cancer through their molecular mode of action. Int J Mol Sci 18:656.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030656 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Bajguz A, Tretyn A (2003) The chemical characteristic and distribution of brassinosteroids in plants. Phytochemistry 62:1027–1046PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Balentine DA, Wiseman SA, Bouwens LC (1997) The chemistry of tea flavonoids. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 37:693–704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Banerjee S, Panda CK, Das S (2006) Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), a potential chemopreventive agent for lung cancer. Carcinogenesis 27:1645–1654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bardaweel S, Hudaib M, Tawaha K (2014) Evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities of essential oils from six species of Eucalyptus. J Essent Oil Bear Plant 17:1165–1174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Barnes J, Anderson LA, Gibbons S, Phillipson JD (2005) Echinacea species (Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell., Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench): a review of their chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties. J Pharm Pharmacol 57:929–954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bateman J, Chapman R, Simpson D (1998) Possible toxicity of herbal remedies. Scott Med J 43:7–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bauer R (1998) Echinacea: biological effects and active principles. ACS Symp Ser 691:140–157.  https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-1998-0691.ch012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Benninger J, Schneider HT, Schuppan D, Kirchner T, Hahn EG (1999) Acute hepatitis induced by greater celandine (Chelidonium majus). Gastroenterol 117:1234–1237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bhujade A, Gupta G, Talmale S, Das S, Patil M (2013) Induction of apoptosis in A431 skin cancer cells by Cissus quadrangularis Linn stem extract by altering Bax-Bcl-2 ratio, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and PARP cleavage. Food Funct 4:338–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Blumenthal M (2000) Interaction between herbs and conventional drugs: introductory considerations. HerbalGram 49:52–63Google Scholar
  23. Boivin D, Blanchette M, Barrette S, Moghrabi A, Beliveau R (2007) Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and suppression of TNF-induced activation of NFκB by edible berry juice. Anticancer Res 27:937–948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Burns J, Yokota T, Ashihara H, Lean ME, Crozier A (2002) Plant foods and herbal sources of resveratrol. J Agric Food Chem 50:3337–3340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. But P (1994) Herbal poisoning caused by adulterants or erroneous substitutes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 97:371–374Google Scholar
  26. Byard RW (2010) A review of the potential forensic significance of traditional herbal medicines. J Forensic Sci 55:89–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Calahan J, Howard D, Almalki AJ, Gupta MP, Calderón AI (2016) Chemical adulterants in herbal medicinal products: a review. Planta Med 82:505–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Carte BK, DeBrosse C, Eggleston D, Hemling M, Mentzer M, Poehland B, Troupe N, Westley JW, Hecht SM (1990) Isolation and characterization of a presumed biosynthetic precursor of camptothecin from extracts of Camptotheca acuminata. Tetrahedron 46:2747–2760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Champault G, Patel J, Bonnard A (1984) A double-blind trial of an extract of the plant Serenoa repens in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Br J Clin Pharmacol 18:461–462PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chan YS, Cheng LN, Wu JH, Chan E, Kwan YW, Lee SM, Leung GP, Yu PH, Chan SW (2011) A review of the pharmacological effects of Arctium lappa (burdock). Inflammopharmacology 19:245–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cragg GM, Newman DJ (2005) Plants as a source of anti-cancer agents. J Ethnopharmacol 100:72–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Creţu E, Trifan A, Vasincu A, Miron A (2012) Plant-derived anticancer agents-curcumin in cancer prevention and treatment. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Natlasi 116:1223–1229Google Scholar
  33. Cui Y, Shu XO, Gao YT, Cai H, Tao MH, Zheng W (2006) Association of ginseng use with survival and quality of life among breast cancer patients. Am J Epidemiol 163:645–653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Damato G, Cecchi L, Bonini S, Nunes C, Annesi-Maesano I, Behrendt H, Liccardi G, Popov T, van Cauwenberge P (2007) Allergenic pollen and pollen allergy in Europe. Allergy 62:976–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Danciu C, Vlaia L, Fetea F, Hancianu M, Coricovac DE, Ciurlea SA, Şoica CM, Marincu I, Vlaia V, Dehelean CA, Trandafirescu C (2015) Evaluation of phenolic profile, antioxidant and anticancer potential of two main representants of Zingiberaceae family against B164A5 murine melanoma cells. Biol Res 48:1.  https://doi.org/10.1186/0717-6287-48-1 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. De Silva DD, Rapior S, Fons F, Bahkali AH, Hyde KD (2012) Medicinal mushrooms in supportive cancer therapies: an approach to anti-cancer effects and putative mechanisms of action. Fungal Divers 55:1–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Del Follo-Martinez A, Banerjee N, Li X, Safe S, Mertens-Talcott S (2013) Resveratrol and quercetin in combination have anticancer activity in colon cancer cells and repress oncogenic microRNA-27a. Nutri Cancer 65:494–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dghaim R, Al Khatib S, Rasool H, Ali Khan M (2015) Determination of heavy metals concentration in traditional herbs commonly consumed in the United Arab Emirates. J Environ Public Health 2015:6.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/973878 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dumbravă DG, Hădărugă NG, Hădărugă DI, Gruia A, Tatu C, Păunescu V, Lupea AX (2008) Antioxidant activity of some celandine (Chelidonium majus L.) carotenoidic extract. J Agroaliment Process Technol 14:433–441Google Scholar
  40. Dwivedi V, Shrivastava R, Hussain S, Ganguly C, Bharadwaj M (2011) Comparative anticancer potential of clove (Syzygium aromaticum)-an Indian spice against cancer cell lines of various anatomical origin. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 12:1989–1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Elujoba AA, Odeleye O, Ogunyemi C (2005) Traditional medicine development for medical and dental primary health care delivery system in Africa. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2:46–61Google Scholar
  42. Ernst E (2002) Adulteration of Chinese herbal medicines with synthetic drugs: a systematic review. J Intern Med 252:107–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fabricant DS, Farnsworth NR (2001) The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery. Environ Health Perspect 109:69–75PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Farshori NN, Al-Sheddi ES, Al-Oqail MM, Musarrat J, Al-Khedhairy AA, Siddiqui MA (2013) Anticancer activity of Petroselinum sativum seed extracts on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 14:5719–5723PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Feifer AH, Fleshner NE, Klotz L (2002) Analytical accuracy and reliability of commonly used nutritional supplements in prostate disease. J Urol 168:150–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, Parkin DM, Forman D, Bray F (2014) Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer 136:E359–E386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fiore C, Eisenhut M, Ragazzi E, Zanchin G, Armanini D (2005) A history of the therapeutic use of liquorice in Europe. J Ethnopharmacol 99:317–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fischer J, Ganellin CR (2010) Analogue-based drug discovery II. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gali-Muhtasib H, Hmadi R, Kareh M, Tohme R, Darwiche N (2015) Cell death mechanisms of plant-derived anticancer drugs: beyond apoptosis. Apoptosis 20:1531–1562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gardner Z, McGuffin M (2013) American Herbal Products Association’s botanical safety handbook. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  51. Gezahegn Z, Akhtar MS, Woyessa D, Tariku Y (2015) Antibacterial potential of Thevetia peruviana leaf extracts against food associated pathogens. J Coast Life Med 3:150–157Google Scholar
  52. Giddings LA, Newman DJ (2013) Microbial natural products: molecular blueprints for antitumor drugs. J Indian Microbiol Biotechnol 40:1181–1210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gilani A-uH, Jabeen Q, Khan MAU (2004) A review of medicinal uses and pharmacological activities of Nigella sativa. Pak J Biol Sci 7:441–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gilca M, Gaman L, Panait E, Stoian I, Atanasiu V (2010) Chelidonium majus–an integrative review: traditional knowledge versus modern findings. Forsch Komplementmed 17:241–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Giovannucci E (1999) Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature. J Natl Cancer Inst 91:317–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Girard L, Vohra S (2011) 21 ethics of using herbal medicine as primary or adjunct treatment and issues of drug-herb interaction. In: Benzie IFF, Wachtel-Galor S (eds) Herbal medicine: biomolecular and clinical aspects, 2nd edn. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  57. Greenwell M, Rahman P (2015) Medicinal plants: their use in anticancer treatment. Int J Pharm Sci Res 6:4103–4112PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Guo L, Bai SP, Zhao L, Wang XH (2012) Astragalus polysaccharide injection integrated with vinorelbine and cisplatin for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: effects on quality of life and survival. Med Oncol 29:1656–1662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gupta PC (2012) Biological and pharmacological properties of Terminalia chebula retz.(haritaki)-an overview. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 4:62–68Google Scholar
  60. Gupta S, Zhang D, Yi J, Shao J (2004) Anticancer activities of Oldenlandia diffusa. J Herb Pharmacother 4:21–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hall W, Degenhardt L (2009) Adverse health effects of non-medical cannabis use. Lancet 374:1383–1391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hermanson DJ, Marnett LJ (2011) Cannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev 30:599–612PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hong L, Ying SH (2015) Ethanol extract and isolated constituents from Artemisia dracunculus inhibit esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and induce apoptotic cell death. Drug Res 65:101–106Google Scholar
  64. Hu S, Huang L, Meng L, Sun H, Zhang W, Xu Y (2015) Isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in breast cancer via Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase signaling pathways. Mol Med Rep 12:6745–6751PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Huang KC (1998) The pharmacology of Chinese herbs. CRC Press, Bocca RatonGoogle Scholar
  66. Huang XF, Lin YY, Kong LY (2008) Steroids from the roots of Asparagus officinalis and their cytotoxic activity. J Integr Plant Biol 50:717–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Jain SK, Meena S, Gupta AP, Kushwaha M, Uma Shaanker R, Jaglan S, Bharate SB, Vishwakarma RA (2014) Dysoxylum binectariferum bark as a new source of anticancer drug camptothecin: bioactivity-guided isolation and LCMS-based quantification. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 24:3146–3149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jankun J, Selman SH, Swiercz R, Skrzypczak-Jankun E (1997) Why drinking green tea could prevent cancer. Nature 387:561.  https://doi.org/10.1038/42381 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Jatoi A, Burch P, Hillman D et al (2007) A tomato-based, lycopene-containing intervention for androgen-independent prostate cancer: results of a Phase II study from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group. Urology 69:289–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jiang WG, Ye L, Ji K, Frewer N, Ji J, Mason MD (2012) Inhibitory effects of Yangzheng Xiaoji on angiogenesis and the role of the focal adhesion kinase pathway. Int J Oncol 41:1635–1642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jiang WG, Ye L, Ruge F, Owen S, Martin T, Sun PH, Sanders AJ, Lane J, Satherley L, Weeks HP, Gao Y, Wei C, Wu Y, Mason MD (2015) Yang Zheng Xiao Ji exerts anti-tumour growth effects by antagonising the effects of HGF and its receptor, cMET, in human lung cancer cells. J Transl Med 13:280.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12967-015-0639-1 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Kapoor L (2000) Handbook of Ayurvedic medicinal plants: herbal reference library, vol 2. CRC Press, Bocca RatonGoogle Scholar
  73. Khan MA, Chen HC, Tania M, Zhang DZ (2011) Anticancer activities of Nigella sativa (black cumin). Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 8:226–232PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Kim SA, Sung YK, Kwon BM, Yoon JH, Lee H, Ahn SG, Hong SH (2010) 2′-Hydroxycinnamaldehyde shows antitumor activity against oral cancer in vitro and in vivo in a rat tumor model. Anticancer Res 30:489–494Google Scholar
  75. Kirana C, Jones GP, Record IR, McIntosh GH (2007) Anticancer properties of panduratin A isolated from Boesenbergia pandurata (Zingiberaceae). J Nat Med 61:131–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ko RJ (1998) Adulterants in Asian patent medicines. N Engl J Med 339:847–847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kumara PM, Zuehlke S, Priti V, Ramesha BT, Shweta S, Ravikanth G, Vasudeva R, Santhoshkumar TR, Spiteller M, Uma Shaanker R (2012) Fusarium proliferatum, an endophytic fungus from Dysoxylum binectariferum Hook. F., produces rohitukine, a chromane alkaloid possessing anticancer activity. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 101:323–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lee JH, Lee SJ, Park S, Jeong SW, Kim CY, Jin JS, Jeong ED, Kwak YS, Kim ST, Bae DW, Kim GS, Shin SC (2012) Determination of flavonoid level variation in onion (Allium cepa L.) infected by Fusarium oxysporum using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Food Chem 133:1653–1657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Leem J (2015) Is traditional Chinese herbal medicine effective in prolonging survival times in extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer patients. Integr Med Res 4:256–259PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Li D, Xu X, Bao D, Xue F, Dai D (2009) Effects of kanglaite capsules combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) on patients with mid or late-stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Chin Ger J Clin Oncol 8:65–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lim TK (2012) Ribes rubrum. In: Lim TK (ed) Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 43–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Liu Z (2009) Infantile cough. Essentials of Chinese medicine. In: Liu Z (ed) Essentials of Chinese medicine. Springer, London, pp 333–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Liu S, Sun J (2007) Effect of ‘Jinfukang oral solution’ on expression of apoptosis related genes of human lung adenocarcinoma cells transplanted in nude mice. Shang J Tradit Chin Med 10:69–71Google Scholar
  84. Liu J, Shi Z, Xu Z, Zhu Y, Zhao L, Li H, Gao H, Chen S (2000) Clinical observation on treatment of non-parvicellular carcinoma of the lung with jin fu kang oral liquid. J Tradit Chin Med 20:96–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. London C (2010) Functional foods that boost the immune system. In: Smith J, Charter E (eds), Functional food product development, Wiley-Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  86. Lu Y, Li CS, Dong Q (2008) Chinese herb related molecules of cancer-cell-apoptosis: a minireview of progress between Kanglaite injection and related genes. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 27:31.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-9966-27-31 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Łuczaj W, Skrzydlewska E (2005) Antioxidative properties of black tea. Prev Med 40:910–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Luo JZ, Luo L (2009) Ginseng on hyperglycemia: effects and mechanisms. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 6:423–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lust J (2014) The herb book: the most complete catalog of herbs ever published. Courier Corporation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  90. Malíková J, Swaczynová J, Kolář Z, Strnad M (2008) Anticancer and antiproliferative activity of natural brassinosteroids. Phytochemistry 69:418–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. McCulloch M, See C, Shu XJ, Broffman M, Kramer A, Fan WY, Gao J, Lieb W, Shieh K, McCulloch M, See C, Shu XJ, Broffman M, Kramer A, Fan WY, Gao J, Lieb W, Shieh K, Colford JJM (2006) Astragalus based Chinese herbs and platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced non–small-cell lung cancer: meta-analysis of randomized trials. J Clin Oncol 24:419–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. McGuire WP, Hoskins WJ, Brady MF, Kucera PR, Partridge EE, Look KY, Clarke-Pearson DL, Davidson M (1996) Cyclophosphamide and cisplatin compared with paclitaxel and cisplatin in patients with stage III and stage IV ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 334:1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. McNamara S, Song XK (1995) Traditional Chinese medicine. Hamish Hamilton, LondonGoogle Scholar
  94. Miller K, Wang M, Gralow J, Dickler M, Cobleigh M, Perez EA, Shenkier T, Cella D, Davidson NE (2007) Paclitaxel plus bevacizumab versus paclitaxel alone for metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med 357:2666–2676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mishra BB, Tiwari VK (2011) Natural products: an evolving role in future drug discovery. Eur J Med Chem 46:4769–4807PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mishra LC, Singh BB, Dagenais S (2000) Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): a review. Altern Med Rev 5:334–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Mishra A, Sharma AK, Kumar S, Saxena AK, Pandey AK (2013) Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts exhibit considerable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Bio Med Res Int 2013:915436.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/915436 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mitchell-Heggs C, Conway M, Cassar J (1990) Herbal medicine as a cause of combined lead and arsenic poisoning. Hum Exp Toxicol 9:195–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mohandas K, Desai D (1998) Epidemiology of digestive tract cancers in India. V. Large and small bowel. Indian J Gastroenterol 18:118–121Google Scholar
  100. Mohanty SK, Swamy MK, Sinniah UR, Anuradha M (2017) Leptadenia reticulata (Retz.) Wight & Arn. (Jivanti): botanical, agronomical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and biotechnological aspects. Molecules 22:1019.  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Montes ND, Zapata NR Jr (2012) Opportunities and challenges in the emerging global herbal medicine industry. J Glob Bus Trade 8:67–78Google Scholar
  102. Mori A, Lehmann S, O'Kelly J, Kumagai T, Desmond JC, Pervan M, McBride WH, Kizaki M, Koeffler HP (2006) Capsaicin, a component of red peppers, inhibits the growth of androgen-independent, p53 mutant prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res 66:3222–3229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mukherjee PK (2015) Evidence-based validation of herbal medicine. Elsevier, BostonGoogle Scholar
  104. Mumoli N, Cei M (2008) Licorice-induced hypokalemia. Int J Cardiol 124:e42–e44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Naik G, Priyadarsini K, Mohan H (2006) Free radical scavenging reactions and phytochemical analysis of triphala, an ayurvedic formulation. Curr Sci 90:1100–1105Google Scholar
  106. Normile D (2003) The new face of traditional Chinese medicine. Science 299:188–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Obolskiy D, Pischel I, Feistel B, Glotov N, Heinrich M (2011) Artemisia dracunculus l. (tarragon): a critical review of its traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology, and safety. J Agric Food Chem 59:11367–11384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ouyang X, Wang X, Lee D, Tsao S, Wong Y (2002) Over expression of ID-1 in prostate cancer. J Urol 167:2598–2602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Potmesil M, Pinedo HM (1994) Camptothecins new anticancer agents. CRC Press, Bocca RatonGoogle Scholar
  110. Potter JD, Slattery ML, Bostick RM, Gapstur SM (1993) Colon cancer: a review of the epidemiology. Epidemiol Rev 15:499–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Poucheret P, Fons F, Rapior S (2006) Biological and pharmacological activity of higher fungi: 20-year retrospective analysis. Cryptogamie Mycol 27:311–333Google Scholar
  112. Prakash E, Gupta DK (2014) Cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn against seven human cancer cell line. Univers J Agric Res 2:27–30Google Scholar
  113. Ramos-Torres A, Morell C, Bort A, Rodriguez-Henche N, Diaz-Laviada I (2015) Capsaicin induces autophagy in prostate cancer cells through reactive oxygen species generation. FEBS J 282:361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Randhawa MA, Alghamdi MS (2011) Anticancer activity of Nigella sativa (black seed)-a review. Am J Chin Med 39:1075–1091PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Rárová L, Zahler S, Liebl J, Kryštof V, Sedlák D, Bartůněk P, Kohout L, Strnad M (2012) Brassinosteroids inhibit in vitro angiogenesis in human endothelial cells. Steroids 77:1502–1509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Rowland DL, Tai W (2003) A review of plant-derived and herbal approaches to the treatment of sexual dysfunctions. J Sex Marital Ther 29:185–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Ruixing Y, Weixiong L, Hanjun Y, Dezhai Y, Shuquan L, Shangling P, Qiming F, Jinzhen W, Jianting G, Yaju D (2008) Diet, lifestyle, and blood pressure of the middle-aged and elderly in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Am J Hypertens 21:382–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Ruskin RS, Priya K, Gopukumar S (2014) Evaluation of phytochemical, antibacterial and anti-cancerous activity of Cissus quadrangularis from South Western Ghats regions of India. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 28:12–15Google Scholar
  119. Sahashi Y (2005) Herbs covered by health insurance in Japan. J Kampo Acupun Integr Med 1:70–84Google Scholar
  120. Sánchez AM, Malagarie-Cazenave S, Olea N, Vara D, Chiloeches A, Díaz-Laviada I (2007) Apoptosis induced by capsaicin in prostate PC-3 cells involves ceramide accumulation, neutral sphingomyelinase, and JNK activation. Apoptosis 12:2013–2024PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sandhya T, Lathika K, Pandey B, Mishra K (2006) Potential of traditional ayurvedic formulation, Triphala, as a novel anticancer drug. Cancer Lett 231:206–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sandler A, Gray R, Perry MC, Brahmer J, Schiller JH, Dowlati A, Lilenbaum R, Johnson DH (2006) Paclitaxel–carboplatin alone or with bevacizumab for non–small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 355:2542–2550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Saper RB, Kales SN, Paquin J, Burns MJ, Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, Phillips RS (2004) Heavy metal content of ayurvedic herbal medicine products. JAMA 292:2868–2873PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Sarfaraz S, Afaq F, Adhami VM, Mukhtar H (2005) Cannabinoid receptor as a novel target for the treatment of prostate cancer. Cancer Res 65:1635–1641PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Scalbert A (1991) Antimicrobial properties of tannins. Phytochemistry 30:3875–3883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Scher HI, Kelly WK, Zhang ZF, Ouyang P, Sun M, Schwartz M, Ding C, Wang W, Horak ID, Kremer AB (1999) Post-therapy serum prostate-specific antigen level and survival in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 91:244–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Seeram NP, Adams LS, Henning SM, Niu Y, Zhang Y, Nair MG, Heber D (2005) In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice. J Nutr Biochem 16:360–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sertel S, Eichhorn T, Plinkert PK, Efferth T (2011) Cytotoxicity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil towards human oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Anticancer Res 31:81–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Setty AR, Sigal LH (2005) Herbal medications commonly used in the practice of rheumatology: mechanisms of action, efficacy, and side effects. Semin Arthritis Rheum 34:773–784PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Shan SJ, Xiao T, Chen J, Geng SL, Li CP, Xu X, Hong Y, Ji C, Guo Y, Wei H, Liu W (2012) Kanglaite attenuates UVB-induced down-regulation of aquaporin-3 in cultured human skin keratinocytes. Int J Mol Med 29:625–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Shareef M, Ashraf MA, Sarfraz M (2016) Natural cures for breast cancer treatment. Saudi Pharm J 24:233–240PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Shibata S, Inoue H, Iwata S, Ma R, Yu L, Ueyama H, Takayasu J, Hasegawa T, Tokuda H, Nishino A, Nishino H (1991) Inhibitory effects of licochalcone A isolated from Glycyrrhiza inflata root on inflammatory ear edema and tumour promotion in mice. Planta Med 57:221–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Shimada Y, Yoshino M, Wakui A, Nakao I, Futatsuki K, Sakata Y, Kambe M, Taguchi T, Ogawa N (1993) Phase II study of CPT-11, a new camptothecin derivative, in metastatic colorectal cancer. CPT-11 gastrointestinal cancer study group. J Clin Oncol 11:909–913PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Shin HR, Kim JY, Yun TK, Morgan G, Vainio H (2000) The cancer-preventive potential of Panax ginseng: a review of human and experimental evidence. Cancer Causes Control 11:565–576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Shoskes DA (2002) Phytotherapy in chronic prostatitis. Urology 60:35–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Sivakumar T, Nair BJ, Panicker A (2010) Phytochemicals-the natural fighters against oral cancer. Trivend Dental J 1:33–41Google Scholar
  137. Slichenmyer WJ, Rowinsky EK, Donehower RC, Kaufmann SH (1993) The current status of camptothecin analogues as antitumor agents. J Natl Cancer Inst 85:271–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Song HZ, Igarashi M, Kato M, Muto Y (2004) In vitro study of the chemopreventive effects of Chinese herbs against hepatocarcinogenesis. J Clin Biochem Nutr 35:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Steigerová J, Oklešťková J, Levková M, Rárová L, Kolář Z, Strnad M (2010) Brassinosteroids cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human breast cancer cells. Chem Biol Interact 188:487–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Stoilova I, Krastanov A, Stoyanova A, Denev P, Gargova S (2007) Antioxidant activity of a ginger extract (Zingiber officinale). Food Chem 102:764–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Swamy MK, Sinniah UR (2015) A comprehensive review on the phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Pogostemon cablin Benth.: an aromatic medicinal plant of industrial importance. Molecules 20:8521–8547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Swamy MK, Sinniah UR (2016) Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth.): botany, agrotechnology and biotechnological aspects. Ind Crop Prod 87:161–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Swamy MK, Pokharen N, Dahal S, Anuradha M (2011) Phytochemical and antimicrobial studiesof leaf extract of Euphorbia neriifolia. J Med Plant Res 5:5785–5788Google Scholar
  144. Swamy MK, Sinniah UR, Akhtar MS (2016) Antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils against human pathogens and their mode of action: an updated review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 22:1019.  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22061019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Swamy MK, Arumugam G, Kaur R, Ghasemzadeh A, Yusoff MM, Sinniah UR (2017) GC-MS based metabolite profiling, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of different solvent extracts of Malaysian Plectranthus amboinicus leaves. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2017:10.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1517683 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Tacklind J, MacDonald R, Rutks I, Stanke JU, Wilt TJ (2012) Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 12:CD001423.  https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001423.pub3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Takeo T (2015) Green tea polyphenol as food additive and supplemental factor for disease prevention. Int J Tea Sci 2:27–33Google Scholar
  148. Takimoto CH, Wright J, Arbuck SG (1998) Clinical applications of the camptothecins. Biochim Biophys Acta 1400:107–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Vaes LP, Chyka PA (2000) Interactions of warfarin with garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng: nature of the evidence. Ann Pharmacother 34:1478–1482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Valko M, Rhodes C, Moncol J, Izakovic M, Mazur M (2006) Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Chem Biol Interact 160:1–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Varalakshmi B, Anand AV, Karpagam T, Bai JS, Manikandan R (2014) In vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Linn bark extracts. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 6:12–18Google Scholar
  152. Vavrečková C, Gawlik I, Müller K (1996) Benzophenanthridine alkaloids of Chelidonium majus; I. Inhibition of 5-and 12-lipoxygenase by a non-redox mechanism. Planta Med 62:397–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Vidal S, Courcoux P, Francis L, Kwiatkowski M, Gawel R, Williams P, Waters E, Cheynier V (2004) Use of an experimental design approach for evaluation of key wine components on mouth-feel perception. Food Qual Prefer 15:209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Volkow ND, Baler RD, Compton WM, Weiss SR (2014) Adverse health effects of marijuana use. N Engl J Med 370:2219–2227PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Waffo-Téguo P, Hawthorne ME, Cuendet M, Mérillon JM, Kinghorn AD, Pezzuto JM, Mehta RG (2001) Potential cancer-chemopreventive activities of wine stilbenoids and flavans extracted from grape (Vitis vinifera) cell cultures. Nutri Cancer 40:173–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Wall ME, Wani M, Cook C, Palmer KH, McPhail AT, Sim G (1966) Plant antitumor agents. I. The isolation and structure of camptothecin, a novel alkaloidal leukemia and tumor inhibitor from Camptotheca acuminata1, 2. J Am Chem Soc 88:3888–3890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wang H, Provan GJ, Helliwell K (2000) Tea flavonoids: their functions, utilisation and analysis. Trends Food Sci Technol 11:152–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Wang X, Zhang H, Chen L, Shan L, Fan G, Gao X (2013) Liquorice, a unique “guide drug” of traditional Chinese medicine: a review of its role in drug interactions. J Ethnopharmacol 150:781–790PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Wani MC, Taylor HL (1971) Plant antitumor agents. VI. The isolation and structure of taxol, a novel antileukemia and antitumor agent from [the stem bark of] Taxus brevifolia. J Am Chem Soc 93:2325–2327PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. Westfall RE (2001) Herbal medicine in pregnancy and childbirth. Adv Ther 18:47–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. WHO (2014) Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2014. World Health Organization, Geneva. www.who.int/nmh/publications/ncd-status-report-2014/en/ Google Scholar
  162. WHO (2017) Cancer fact sheet. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/. Accessed 17 July 2017
  163. Witherup KM, Look SA, Stasko MW, Ghiorzi TJ, Muschik GM, Cragg GM (1989) Taxus spp. needles contain amounts of taxol comparable to the bark of Taxus brevifolia: analysis and isolation. J Nat Prod 53:1249–1255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Wong BY, Lau BH, Jia TY, Wan CP (1996) Oldenlandia diffusa and Scutellaria barbata augment macrophage oxidative burst and inhibit tumor growth. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 11:51–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Wongnoppavich A, Jaijoi K, Sireeratawong S (2009) Triphala: the Thai traditional herbal formulation for cancer treatment. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 31:139–149Google Scholar
  166. Wu Y, Fischer W (1997) Practical therapeutics of traditional Chinese medicine. Paradigm Publications, BrooklineGoogle Scholar
  167. Wu AH, Yu MC, Tseng CC, Hankin J, Pike MC (2003) Green tea and risk of breast cancer in Asian Americans. Int J Cancer 106:574–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Yager P, Domingo GJ, Gerdes J (2008) Point-of-care diagnostics for global health. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 10:107–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Yang YW, Bian HM, Jiang FR (2009) Lung cancer and traditional Chinese medicine therapy. Chin Arch Tradit Chin Med 9:065Google Scholar
  170. Yoshida Y, Wang M, Liu J, Shan B, Yamashita U (1997) Immunomodulating activity of Chinese medicinal herbs and Oldenlandia diffusa in particular. Int Immunopharmacol 19:359–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. You Li H (2010) Resource and utilization of medicinal plant of the genus Adenophora in Qinling mountains. Med Plant 1:3–6Google Scholar
  172. Zaveri NT (2006) Green tea and its polyphenolic catechins: medicinal uses in cancer and noncancer applications. Life Sci 78:2073–2080PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Zeng Y, Li Y, Yang J, Pu X, Du J, Yang X, Yang T, Yang S (2017) Therapeutic role of functional components in alliums for preventive chronic disease in human being. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2017:9402849.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9402849 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. Zhan YP, Huang XE, Cao J, Lu YY, Wu XY, Liu J, Xu X, Xiang J, Ye LH (2012) Clinical safety and efficacy of Kanglaite® (Coix seed oil) injection combined with chemotherapy in treating patients with gastric cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 13:5319–5321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Zhang M, Holman CAJ, Huang J-P, Xie X (2007) Green tea and the prevention of breast cancer: a case–control study in Southeast China. Carcinogenesis 28:1074–1078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Zhu L, Yang Z, Wang S, Tang Y (2009) Kanglaite for treating advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a systematic review. Chin J Lung Cancer 12:208–215Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kai Wei Lee
    • 1
  • Siew Mooi Ching
    • 1
  • Fan Kee Hoo
    • 2
  • Vasudevan Ramachandran
    • 3
  • Mallappa Kumara Swamy
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  3. 3.Malaysian Research Institute on AgeingUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Crop Science, Faculty of AgricultureUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  5. 5.Department of BiotechnologyPadmashree Institute of Management and SciencesBengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations