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Fungal Endophytes as Novel Sources of Anticancer Compounds

  • Kashyapi Chakravarty
  • Smriti Gaur
Chapter

Abstract

There has been an exponential rise in the world population having numerous health ailments as a result of carcinogens causing cancer. Therefore, newer arenas to combat this issue are being continuously explored, and endophytes constitute one such source of potential anticancer agents. Endophytes are microbes residing in viable plant tissues consisting of potential, substantial sources of natural bioactive agents. Endophytic fungi reside within the tissues of higher plants without causing any harmful symptoms. The anticancer activities displayed by these microbes against specific cancer cells have been due to the cytotoxic effects of their bioactive compounds. These organisms have been comparatively less explored, and their use in the pharmaceutical industry holds significant promise. Fungal endophytes form a reliable source of important secondary metabolites by employment of their biotransformation processes. They employ specific mechanisms by which they penetrate the tissues of host plants and live in mutualistic association with the plants. They can be genetically and physico-chemically modified to obtain higher yields of specific metabolites of interest. Unique analogues of active metabolites can also be generated using fungal endophytes. A critical balance maintained between the virulence by a fungal endophyte and the defence mechanism of the plant, by the release of endophytic metabolites, helps in sustaining its competition with plant pathogens and epiphytes. Therefore, the aim of this chapter is to highlight the new arena of research on fungal endophytes producing novel anticancer metabolites. Insights into this research would ultimately help in the production of safe, reliable and economical anticancer drugs.

Keywords

Anticancer compounds Camptothecin Cancer Fungal endophytes Taxol 

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyJaypee Institute of Information TechnologyNoidaIndia

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