Advertisement

Plant Biodiversity of Ravine Ecosystem: Opening New Vistas for Enhancing Productivity

  • A. R. Uthappa
  • S. B. Chavan
  • M. N. Ramesha
  • S. Kala
  • Veeresh Kumar
  • A. K. Handa
  • O. P. Chaturvedi
Chapter

Abstract

Ravines are the worst form of land degradation and characterized by edaphic, topographic, and climatic adversities. Due to unregulated and overexploitation, the forest areas under ravines are facing severe threats of losing biodiversity. Biodiversity of an area determines the health of the ecosystem. The degraded ravine ecosystem also harbors rich diversity and provides fuelwood, fodder, medicines, and small timber to the local dwellers. The biodiversity also supports various kinds of ecosystem services. The unscientific management of ravines has escalated the problems. This chapter is an attempt to document the plant diversity of the ravines and to rehabilitate these ecosystems using agroforestry and soil and water conservation measures. An integrated approach is required for scientific management of ravines which will pave the way toward sustaining ravine ecosystem and livelihood of the people.

References

  1. Balvanera P, Pfisterer AB, Buchmann N, He JS, Nakashizuka T, Raffaelli D, Schmid B (2006) Quantifying the evidence for biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning and services. Ecol Lett 9:1146–1156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cardinale BJ, Matulich KL, Hooper DU, Byrnes JE, Duffy E, Gamfeldt L, Balvanera P, O’Connor MI, Gonzalez A (2011) The functional role of producer diversity in ecosystems. Am J Bot 98:572–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Champion HG, Seth SK (1968) A revised survey of forest types of India. Controller of Publication, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  4. Chaturvedi OP, Kaushal R, Tomar JMS, Prandiyal AK, Panwar P (2014) Agroforestry for waste land rehabilitation: mined, ravine, and degraded watershed areas. In: Dagar JC, Singh AK, Arunachalam A (eds) Agroforestry systems in India: livelihood security & ecosystem services, advances in agroforestry, vol 10. Springer, New Delhi, pp 233–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chauhan BPS, Shrivastava A, Kumar A, Bhadauria S (2015) Floristic diversity in the ravines of Ottangan River under protection and biotic disturbance. Int J Pharma Res Bio-Sci 4(3):100–107Google Scholar
  6. Chavan SB, Chauhan DS, Keerthika A, Uthappa AR, Jha A, Newaj R (2016) Fuelwood characteristics of selected tree species from Bundelkhand region of Central India. Eco Environ Cons 22(April Suppl):S95–S103Google Scholar
  7. Chouhan DS, Chavan SB, Keerthika A, Jha A, Dwivedi RP, Kumar A (2015) Socio-economic fuelwood survey in Bundelkhand region of central India. In: Mishra GC, Yadav SK (eds) Energy research and environmental management: an innovative approach. Krishi Sanskriti Publications, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  8. Dagar JC (1987a) Species composition and plant biomass of an ungrazed and a grazed grassland at Ujjain, India. Trop Ecol 28:208–215Google Scholar
  9. Dagar JC (1987b) Responses of clipping treatments on nine palatable perennial grasses. Trop Ecol 28:26–221Google Scholar
  10. Dagar JC (1987c) Studies on reclamation of Kshipra ravines. Indian J For 10(2):83–89Google Scholar
  11. Dagar JC (1999) Soil erosion parameters with special reference to Kshipra ravines in Madhya Pradesh. Indian J For 22(3):210–221Google Scholar
  12. Dagar JC (2001) Biological spectrum and successional trends in Kshipra watershed areas. Indian J For 24(3):351–356Google Scholar
  13. Dagar JC, Mall LP (1980) Studies on the vegetation of ravines and banks of the river Kshipra and its tributaries. J Indian Bot Soc 59:234–245Google Scholar
  14. Dagar JC, Singh VP (1980) The ecological studies of the vegetation of the river Kshipra and its tributaries. Biologia 26(1):43–62Google Scholar
  15. Dagar JC, Singh VP, Mall LP (1978) Regeneration in plants growing on eroded soil. Ann Arid Zone 17:36–74Google Scholar
  16. Dhyani PP, Kala CP (2005) Current research on medicinal plants: five lesser known but valuable aspects. Curr Sci 88:335–340Google Scholar
  17. Hector A, Schmid B, Beierkuhnlein C, Caldeira MC, Diemer M et al (1999) Plant diversity and productivity experiments in European grasslands. Science 286:1123–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hooper DU, Chapin FS, Ewel JJ, Hector A et al (2005) Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: a consensus of current knowledge. Ecol Monogr 75:3–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kala S, Meena HR, Rashmi I, Prabavathi M, Singh AK, Singh RK (2017) Status of medicinal plants diversity and distribution at rehabilitated Yamuna and Chambal ravine land ecosystems in India. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 6(3):618–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kotia A, Umeshkumar LT, Rawat GS (2008) Semiarid region of India: vegetation characteristics and threatened plants. In: Rawat GS (ed) Special habitats and threatened plants of India. ENVIS bulletin: wildlife and protected areas, vol 11(1). Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, pp 109–116Google Scholar
  21. Liang J, Crowther TW, Picard N, Wiser S, Zhou M, Alberti G, Schulze ED et al (2016) Positive biodiversity-productivity relationship predominant in global forests. Science 354(6309):aaf8957.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaf8957 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Martin C (2002) Meeting sustainable development goals without endangering species diversity. CBD News, p 7Google Scholar
  23. Parandiyal AK, Samara JS, Singh KD, Ratan S, Rathore BL (2000) Floristic diversity of Chambal Ravines under varying levels of protection. Indian J Soil Cons 28(2):160–166Google Scholar
  24. Prajapati MC (1995) Floristic wealth of Yamuna ravines. Indian J Soil Cons 23(1):4–61Google Scholar
  25. Prajapati MC, Nambiar KTN, Puri DN, Singh JP, Malhotra BM (1993) Fuel and fodder production in Yamuna ravines at Agra. Indian J Soil Cons 21(3):8–13Google Scholar
  26. Reich PB, Knops J, Tilman D, Craine J, Ellsworth D et al (2001) Plant diversity enhances ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition. Nature 410:809–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sajwan SS (1975) Ground flora and their distribution in forest plantation in Jamuna ravines. Indian For 101(5):269–275Google Scholar
  28. Sajwan SS (1976) Dominant grasses and their associates in ravinous tracts of Jamuna. Soil Conserv Digest 4(1):26–35Google Scholar
  29. Sethy BK, Parandiyal AK, Shakir A, Kumar A, Singh RK (2011) Cost effective conservation measures for management of medium and deep ravenous lands, Annual report. CSWCRTI, Dehradun, pp 73–74Google Scholar
  30. Sharda VN, Venkateswarlu B (2007) Crop diversification and alternate land use systems in watershed management. In: Best-bet options for integrated watershed management. Proceedings of the comprehensive assessment of watershed programs in India, 25–27 Jul 2007. ICRISAT, Patancheru, pp 111–128Google Scholar
  31. Sikka AK, Mishra PK, Singh RK, Krishna BK Islam A (2016) Management of ravines for food, livelihood and environment security. Paper presented at the Global ravine conference on managing ravines for food and livelihood security, RVSKVV, Gwalior, India, March 7–10, 2016. pp 1–14Google Scholar
  32. Singh A, Verma SK, Singh YP (2013) Ethno-medicinally important plants from Chambal ravine region of Madhya Pradesh. Bioinfolet 10(4A):1186–1192Google Scholar
  33. Thomas M, Sahu P, Shrivastava A, Hussain Z (2011) Biodiversity and livelihood options of people in Chambal ravines of Morena district, Madhya Pradesh, India. J Trop For 27:40–56Google Scholar
  34. Thrupp LA (2000) Linking agricultural biodiversity and food security: the valuable role of sustainable agriculture. Int Aff 76(2):265–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tilman D, Reich PB, Knops J, Wedin D, Mielke T, Lehman C (2001) Diversity and productivity in a long-term grassland experiment. Science 294:843–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tilman D, Reich PB, Isbell F (2012) Biodiversity impacts ecosystem productivity as much as resources, disturbance, or herbivory. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(26):10394–10397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Uthappa AR, Chavan SB, Singh M, Sridhar KB, Dev I, Ram A, Sathish BN, Kumar M, Dwivedi RP, Singh R, Singh RK, Singh R, Tewari RK, Handa AK, Chaturvedi OP (2016) Tree diversity in ravines and their rehabilitation through agroforestry interventions in Bundelkhand Region of India. Indian J Agrofor 18(1):77–83Google Scholar
  38. Verma B, Chinamani S, Bhola SN, Rao DH, Prasad SN, Prakash C (1986) Twenty five years of research on soil and water conservation in ravine lands of Rajasthan. Central soil and water conservation research and training institute publication. Research Centre, Kota, pp 1–215Google Scholar
  39. World Resources Institute (2000) World resources 2000–2001, people and ecosystems: fraying the web of life. World Resources Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. R. Uthappa
    • 1
  • S. B. Chavan
    • 1
  • M. N. Ramesha
    • 2
  • S. Kala
    • 3
  • Veeresh Kumar
    • 1
  • A. K. Handa
    • 1
  • O. P. Chaturvedi
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR-Central Agroforestry Research InstituteJhansiIndia
  2. 2.ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation Research CentreBallariIndia
  3. 3.ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation Research CentreKotaIndia

Personalised recommendations