Gender Challenges and Socio-economic Strategies for Livelihood Security in Ravine Areas

  • Reeta Mishra
  • Yagya Dev Mishra
  • P. P. Singh
  • B. P. S. Raghubanshi


Ravines result not only in the loss of nonrenewable land and soil resources but also lead to other socio-economic and gender challenges along with livelihood problems especially for farm women. Many factors such as rainfall, available cropland, implements, fertilizers, and off-farm activities affect household food security in the ravines. The gender bias is an important cause of poverty in ravine areas because it limits the women’s capacity to contribute to food production and economic growth. Due to illiteracy of women and lack of knowledge regarding the new technologies, they are unable to understand the technologies properly. Programs seeking to increase food production, ensuring stability of food supplies, generating employment, and promoting accessible food for all are the main elements of food security in these regions. Integrated agriculture with crop, animal husbandry, agriproduct processing, and agribusiness is the base of the livelihood and ecological security systems of the ravines, which is the foundation for nutritional food security systems. Hence, there is a need to create awareness and provide training to farm women and rural youth in ravine areas on the latest tools and techniques. Skill development is a key for improving household productivity, employability, and income-earning opportunities for rural women and for enhancing food security and promoting environmentally sustainable rural development and livelihoods. Reduction in drudgery of women would facilitate women to get involved in development works and decision-making process. Hence in ravine areas, periodic training programs should be organized to emphasize on educating farm women regarding recognition of muscular-skeletal disorders and importance of rest pauses and maintaining proper posture while performing agricultural activities. Transfer of technology through extension system should be planned and executed on need-based priorities of farm women with the objective to reorient the system. Women of the ravine areas should be sensitized on the importance of involving in income-generating activities as this will help them to be self-reliant. Moreover, higher adoption of the income-generating activities will enhance the income of farm women, which in turn lead to the sustainable livelihood and improved quality of life of the farm women of ravine areas.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reeta Mishra
    • 1
  • Yagya Dev Mishra
    • 2
  • P. P. Singh
    • 1
  • B. P. S. Raghubanshi
    • 1
  1. 1.RVSKVV- Krishi Vigyan KendraMorenaIndia
  2. 2.Directorate of Extension ServicesRVSKVVGwaliorIndia

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