In Vitro Morphogenesis of Woody Plants Using Thidiazuron

  • A. Vinoth
  • R. Ravindhran


Thidiazuron (TDZ) has been in use for in vitro shoot regeneration, in particular, recalcitrant woody perennials. Owing to its superiority over natural cytokinins in plant regeneration, TDZ has been the plant growth regulator (PGR) of choice for mature tissues. In majority of the tree species, TDZ has induced regeneration via axillary shoot proliferation, adventitious shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Interestingly, TDZ has evoked different regeneration routes from the same explant at different concentrations. In addition, various other factors like pretreatment, explant type, maturity, orientation, TDZ concentration, combination with other PGRs and organic additives interact synergistically to promote shoot regeneration. Despite being potent PGR, supra-optimal level of TDZ produces shoot abnormalities like vitrification/hyperhydricity (stunted shoots) or fasciation (fused shoots). In shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis, prolonged exposure to TDZ resulted in callus necrosis or reversal of shoot buds or somatic embryos to callus. Therefore, this review paper is intended to bring out the effectiveness of TDZ in woody plant tissue culture. The authors also emphasize on various interacting factors to minimize the negative consequences of TDZ treatment.


Thidiazuron Woody plants Shoot regeneration Hyperhydricity Fasciation 





Gibberellic acid


Indole-3-acetic acid


Indole-3-butyric acid




Murashige and Skoog


α-naphthalene acetic acid


Plant growth regulator


Somatic embryo


Secondary somatic embryo





The project is financially supported by University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi [F. 39-259/2010 (SR) dated 27 December 2010] under the scheme Major Research Project granted to Dr. R. Ravindhran. The authors are also thankful to the Loyola College management, Chennai, for providing the laboratory and infrastructure facilities. We also express our sincere gratitude to Dr. G. Ganesan and Dr. S. Selvalakshmi for their critical comments and suggestions on the manuscript.

Author Contributions

AV and RR conceptualized the manuscript. AV prepared the manuscript, while RR edited and provided critical inputs to the manuscript for publication.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the review paper was written in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Vinoth
    • 1
  • R. Ravindhran
    • 1
  1. 1.T.A.L. Samy Unit for Plant Tissue Culture and Molecular Biology, Department of Plant Biology and BiotechnologyLoyola College (Autonomous)Nungambakkam, ChennaiIndia

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