A Method of Bio-efficacy Potential of Zooplankton (Copepod) for the Control of Vector Mosquitoes

  • S. Balakrishnan
  • P. Santhanam
  • N. Manickam
  • M. Srinivasan


Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are one of the main threats for many people throughout the world; subsequently they act as vectors for indispensable pathogens for the following infections, malaria, dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, and parasites, such as filariasis (Murugan et al. 2015). Mosquitoes are the most critical group of insects in the context of public health, because they transmit numerous diseases, causing millions of deaths annually. An annual estimation of 390 million cases worldwide, growing incidence and more frequent epidemics, dengue is an increasingly important public health challenge (WHO 2012; Tran et al. 2015). As there is no vaccine or treatment for dengue, prevention and control of this disease depend on vector control to reduce viral transmission (Guzman and Kouri 2002). The key flight path of dengue is Aedes aegypti, a domestic mosquito that rears mostly in artificial water ampoules (Focks et al. 1981). In this situation, mosquito flight path rheostat is a main anticipation thing. In recent times, eco-friendly resistor tackles have been instigated to increase mosquito control. Substantial hard work has been conceded out investigating the efficacy of botanical products, and many plant-borne compounds have been reported as excellent toxins against mosquitoes, acting as adulticidal, larvicidal, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent, growth and/or reproduction inhibitors, and/or adult repellents (Conti et al. 2014; Murugan et al. 2015; Benelli et al. 2015a, b). Marine creatures are a gorgeous home of fundamentally new and biologically active metabolites, and cyclopoid copepods are noticeable predators in lots of aquatic ecosystems and have been acting as biological substitutes in efficacious programs to control mosquito larvae.



The authors thank the authorities of Bharathidasan University for providing the necessary facilities, and the first author thanks the University Grants Commission, Govt. of India, New Delhi, for financial support through UGC-Research Awardee (No. F.30-1/2014 (SA-II)/RA-2014-16-SC-TAM-4364 dated 05/02/2015). Authors give due thanks to the Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India, New Delhi, for providing microalgae culture facilities through the extramural project (BT/PR 5856/AAQ/3/598/2012).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Balakrishnan
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. Santhanam
    • 1
  • N. Manickam
    • 1
  • M. Srinivasan
    • 3
  1. 1.Marine Planktonology & Aquaculture Laboratory, Department of Marine Science, School of Marine SciencesBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  2. 2.Marine Aquarium & Regional CentreZoological Survey of India, Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change, Govt. of IndiaDighaIndia
  3. 3.Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine SciencesAnnamalai UniversityParangipettaiIndia

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