Biofloc-Copefloc: A Novel Technology for Sustainable Shrimp Farming

  • P. Santhanam
  • S. Ananth
  • S. Dinesh Kumar
  • P. Pachiappan


For the last three decades, since the 1990s, aquaculture has become the fastest growing animal food-producing industry in the world (FAO 2014). It has experienced a tremendous growth in productivity during this period (Asche et al. 2008, 2013). Thus, aquaculture has been one of the most promising animal food-producing sectors, with the lowest feed conversion ratio (Smil 2001), while providing sufficient and highly nutritional food for a growing world population. Particularly, the industry will play a crucial role in meeting increasing demands for healthier animal proteins and lipids. Thus, the contribution of aquaculture in alleviating obesity and its resultant health and social benefits is clear and should not be underestimated.


  1. Asche, F., A.G. Guttormsen, and R. Tveterås. 1999. Environmental problems, productivity and innovations in Norwegian salmon aquaculture. Aquaculture Economics & Management 3 (1): 19–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asche, F., K.H. Roll, and S. Tveterås. 2008. Future trends in aquaculture: Productivity growth and increased production. In Aquaculture in the Ecosystem, ed. M. Holmer, K. Black, C.M. Duarte, N. Marbà, and I. Karakassis. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  3. Asche, F., H. Hansen, R. Tveteras, and S. Tveterås. 2009. The salmon disease crisis in Chile. Marine Resource Economics 24 (4): 405–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asche, F., A. Guttormsen, and R. Nielsen. 2013. Future challenges for the maturing Norwegian salmon aquaculture industry: An analysis of total factor productivity change from 1996 to 2008. Aquaculture 396–399: 43–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baeza-Rojano, E., P. Domingues, J.M. Guerra-García, S. Capella, E. Noreña-Barroso, C. Caamal-Monsreal, and C. Rosas. 2013. Marine gammarids (Crustacea: Amphipoda): A new live prey to culture Octopus maya hatchlings. Aquaculture Research 44 (10): 1602–1612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dhert, P., G. Rombaut, G. Suantika, and P. Sorgeloos. 2001. Advancement of rotifer culture and manipulation techniques in Europe. Aquaculture 200 (1): 129–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. FAO, I. 2014. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture, 12.Google Scholar
  8. Mahjoub, M.S., C. Schmoker, and G. Drillet. 2013. Live feeds in larval fish rearing: Production, use, and future. In Larval Fish Aquaculture, ed. J.G. Qin, 32–51. Australia: Nova Science Publishers 978-1-62417-899-3.Google Scholar
  9. Nakajima, K., and I. Takeuchi. 2008. Rearing method for Caprella mutica (Malacostraca: Amphipoda) in an exhibition tank in the port of Nagoya public aquarium, with notes on reproductive biology. Journal of Crustacean Biology 28 (1): 171–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Naylor, R.L., R.J. Goldburg, J. Primavera, N. Kautsky, M. Beveridge, J. Clay, C. Folke, J. Lubchenco, H. Mooney, and M. Troell. 2000. Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature 405: 1097–1024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Oglend, A. 2013. Recent trends in salmon price volatility. Aquaculture Economics & Management 17 (3): 281–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Perumal, P., B. BalajiPrasath, P. Santhanam, A. Shenbaga Devi, S. Dineshkumar, and S. Jeyanthi. 2015. Isolation and intensive culture of marine microalgae. In Advances in Marine and Brackish Water Aquaculture, ed. P. Santhanam, A.R. Thirunavukkarasu, and P. Perumal, 1–15. New Delhi: Springer Publisher. (ISBN: 978-81-3222270-5).Google Scholar
  13. Santhanam, P., S. Ananth, R. Nandakumar, T. Jayalakshmi, M. Kaviyarasan, and P. Perumal. 2015. Intensive indoor and outdoor pilot scale culture of marine copepods. In Advances in Marine and Brackish Water Aquaculture, ed. P. Santhanam, A.R. Thirunavukkarasu, and P. Perumal, 33–42. New Delhi: Springer. (ISBN: 978-81-3222270-5).Google Scholar
  14. Smil, V. 2011. Nitrogen cycle and world food production. World Agriculture 2 (1): 9–13.Google Scholar
  15. Turingan, R.G., J.L. Beck, J.M. Krebs, and J.D. Licamele.2005. Development of feeding mechanics in marine fish larvae and the swimming behavior of zooplankton prey: Implications for rearing marine fishes. In Copepods in Aquaculture, 119–132.Google Scholar
  16. Zokaeifar, H., J.L. Balcázar, C.R. Saad, M.S. Kamarudin, K. Sijam, A. Arshad, and N. Nejat. 2012. Effects of Bacillus subtilis on the growth performance, digestive enzymes, immune gene expression and disease resistance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 33 (4): 683–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Santhanam
    • 1
  • S. Ananth
    • 2
    • 3
  • S. Dinesh Kumar
    • 1
  • P. Pachiappan
    • 4
  1. 1.Marine Planktonology and Aquaculture Laboratory, Department of Marine Science, School of Marine SciencesBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  2. 2.Marine Planktonology & Aquaculture Lab., Department of Marine Science, School of Marine SciencesBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  3. 3.Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and FisheriesMinistry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Krishi BhavanNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Department of Biotechnology, School of BiosciencesPeriyar UniversitySalemIndia

Personalised recommendations