Advertisement

Assessing the Efficacy of Marine Copepods as an Alternative First Feed for Larval Production of Tiger Shrimp Penaeus monodon

  • P. Santhanam
  • N. Jeyaraj
  • K. Jothiraj
  • S. Ananth
  • S. Dinesh Kumar
  • P. Pachiappan
Chapter

Abstract

Intensive production of marine shrimp is mainly depending on live prey in rearing of the first feeding shrimp larval stages. Commonly rotifers and brine shrimps are the primary live feed for the shrimp, and commercial shrimp production has conventionally acclimatized with this. Because, commercial scale need fast growing and high reproductive rates live pray and they mainly depend on rotifers which fulfil all the requirements. At the same time, brine shrimp Artemia can be collected in nature and stored as cysts until needed. Regrettably, still marine larviculture faces an unbalanced live feed which contains low nutritional compositions, and it reflects in shrimp larval survival and their disease resistance capability. While there is a mass production of shrimp larvae, the high and fluctuating costs of Artemia push to find an alternative live prey such as copepods (Abate et al. 2015; Drillet et al. 2008).

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors are thankful to the authorities of Bharathidasan University for facilities provided. The authors are indebted to the Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India, for providing financial support for this work through Major Research project (BT/PR10161/AAQ/3/371/2007; dated, 20.06.2008). Authors extend their sincere thanks to Mr. Jeyaraj, Senior Technician, Rank Marine Hatchery, Pondicherry, for providing shrimp seed for the experiment. 

References

  1. Abate, T.G., R. Nielsen, M. Nielsen, P.M. Jepsen, and B.W. Hansen. 2015. A cost-effectiveness analysis of live feeds in juvenile turbot Scopthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) farming: Copepods versus Artemia. Aquaculture Nutrition 22 (4): 899–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barlow, C.G., L.J. Rodgers, P.J. Palmer, and C.J. Longhurst. 1995. Feeding habits of hatchery reared barramundi Lates calcarifer (Bloch) fry. Aquaculture 103: 131–143.Google Scholar
  3. Cowey, C.B., and J.R.M. Forster. 1971. The essential approach to the study of growth and bioenergetics in the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Proceedings of World Mariculture Society 10: 701–719.Google Scholar
  4. Drillet, G., P.M. Jepsen, J.K. Hojgaard, N.O.G. Jørgensen, and B.W. Hansen. 2008. Strain-specific vital rates in four Acartia tonsa cultures II: Life history traits and biochemical contents of eggs and adults. Aquaculture 279 (1–4): 47–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kattner, G., W. Hagen, R.F. Lee, R. Campbell, D. Deibel, S. Falk-Petersen, M. Graeve, B.W. Hansen, H.J. Hirche, S.H. Jonasdottir, M.L. Madsen, P. Mayzaud, D. Muller-Navarra, P.D. Nichols, G.A. Paffenhöfer, D. Pond, H. Saito, D. Stubing, and P. Virtue. 2007. Perspectives on marine zooplankton lipids. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 64 (11): 1628–1639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kitajima, C., S. Fujita, F. Oowa, Y. Yone, and T. Watanable. 1979. Improvement of dietary value for red sea bream larvae of rotifers, Brachionus plicatilis, cultured with beakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bulletin of the Japanese Society for the Science of Fish 45: 469–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Klein Breteler, W.C.M., N. Schogt, M. Baas, S. Schouten, and G.W. Kraay. 1999. Trophic upgrading of food quality by protozoans enhancing copepod growth: Role of essential lipids. Marine Biology 135: 191–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lovett, Donald L., and Darryl L. Felder. 1988. Evaluation of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis as a substitute for Artemia in feeding larvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Aquaculture 71 (4): 331–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Read, G.H.L. 1981. The response of Penaeus indicus (Crustacea: Penaeidea) to purified and compounded diets of varying fatty acid composition. Aquaculture 24: 245–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Reigh, R.C., and R.R. Stickney. 1989. Effects of purified dietary fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Aquaculture 77: 157–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ricker, W.E. 1979. Growth rates and models. In Bioenergetics and growth, Fish Physiology, ed. W.S. Hoar, D.J. Randall, and J.R. Brett, vol. 7, 677–743. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  12. Safiullah, A.. 2001. Biochemical and nutritional evaluation and culture of freshwater live food organisms for aquahatcheries. Ph. D. thesis, University of Madras, 103 pp.Google Scholar
  13. Santhanam, P., P. Perumal, and M. Rajkumar. 2004. Effect of feeding Artemia on growth and survival of P. monodon larvae. Journal of Applied Fish Aquaculture IV (2): 42–46.Google Scholar
  14. Støttrup, J.G., J.G. Bell, and J.R. Sargent. 1999. The fate of lipids during development and cold-storage of eggs in the laboratory-reared calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa Dana, and in response to different algal diets. Aquaculture 176 (3–4): 257–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Tang, K.W., H.H. Jakobsen, and A.W. Visser. 2001. Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae) and the planktonic food web: Feeding, growth, and trophic interactions among grazers. Limnology and Oceanography 46 (8): 1860–1870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Watanabe, T., T. Takeuchi, T. Arakawa, K. Imaizumi, S. Sekia, and C. Kitajima. 1989. Requirements of juvenile striped jack (Longirrostris delicatissimus) for n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 55: 1111–1117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Santhanam
    • 1
  • N. Jeyaraj
    • 1
  • K. Jothiraj
    • 1
  • S. Ananth
    • 2
    • 3
  • S. Dinesh Kumar
    • 1
  • P. Pachiappan
    • 4
  1. 1.Marine Planktonology & Aquaculture Laboratory, Department of Marine Science, School of Marine SciencesBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  2. 2.Marine Planktonology & Aquaculture Lab., Department of Marine Science, School of Marine SciencesBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  3. 3.Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and FisheriesMinistry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Krishi BhavanNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Department of Biotechnology, School of BiosciencesPeriyar UniversitySalemIndia

Personalised recommendations