Advertisement

A Study on Assessing the Feeding, Survival, Fecundity, and Postembryonic Development of Zooplankton Nitocra affinis (Copepoda: Harpacticoida)

  • R. Nandakumar
  • P. Santhanam
Chapter

Abstract

Copepods are the most copious metazoan subclass on the planet and generally dominate the mesozooplankton, constituting more than 80% of its biomass (Verity and Smetacek 1996). Copepods play a primary role in the marine fish larval diets (Santhanam and Perumal 2012a, b), and on average copepods make up more than 50% of the fish larval gut contents (Stottrup 2000). By forming a vital link between primary and tertiary production, copepods play an important role in the transferring of nutrients and energy in marine ecosystem (Kiorboe 1997; Santhanam et al. 2013). It is well recognized that many marine fish larvae cannot thrive on the traditionally used live feeds like rotifers (Brachionus sp.) and Artemia sp., and this represents a major challenge to the aquaculture industry (Chesney 2007; McKinnon et al. 2003; O’Bryen and Lee 2005), as these species include several high-valued food fishes such as tropical snappers (Lutjanidae.) and groupers (Serranidae and Epinephelinae) and also several marine ornamental species, such as marine Angel fishes (Pomacanthidae) and the seahorse Hippocampus subelongatus (Payne and Rippingale 2001; Vander Lugt and Lenz 2008). On the other hand, copepods have been proven as ultimate food for many cultured marine larvae (Matias-Peralta et al. 2012; Hernandez Molejon and Alvarez-Lajonchere 2003), showing considerable advantages while comparing with rotifers and Artemia (Chen et al. 2006). The advantages of copepods over commonly used hatchery live feeds comprise of their many naupliar and copepodite stages that provide a wide variety of prey sizes for cultured larvae (Chen et al. 2006). Additionally, the nutritional profile of copepods generally matches the needs of marine fish larvae (Stottrup 2000; Evjemo et al. 2003; McKinnon et al. 2003). These advantages make copepods as the potential live feed for the successful larval culture of species that is difficult to be cultured using traditional live feeds (O’Bryen and Lee 2005). Moreover, addition of copepods in diets of previously cultured species could promote their survival, development, and pigmentation (Stottrup 2000; Knuckey et al. 2005; Vander Lugt and Lenz 2008). In spite of these promising features, the use of copepods in aquaculture remains inconsistent (Marcus et al. 2004; Camus and Zeng 2008; Santhanam and Perumal 2012a). This underutilization is mostly accredited to their relative low productivity in intensive culture (O’Bryen and Lee 2005), which could in turn be partly attributed to the lack of research on this field.

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors are thankful to the Head of the Department of Marine Science and authorities of Bharathidasan University for the facilities provided. Authors also thank the DBT, Government of India, for providing financial support to set up the microalgae culture facility through the extramural project (BT/PR 5856/AAQ/3/598/2012). One of the authors (RN) thanks the CSIR Government of India, for Senior Research Fellowship.

References

  1. Calbet, A., and M. Alcaraz. 1996. Effects of constant and fluctuating food supply on egg production rates of Acartia grani (Copepoda: Calanoida). Marine Ecology Progress Series 140 (1): 33–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Calliari, D., M.C. Andersen Borg, P. Thor, E. Gorokhova, and P. Tiselius. 2008. Instantaneous salinity reductions affect the survival and feeding rates of the co-occurring copepods Acartia tonsa Dana and A. clausi Giesbrecht differently. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 362 (1): 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Camus, T., and C. Zeng. 2008. Effects of photoperiod on egg production and hatching success, naupliar and copepodite development, adult sex ratio and life expectancy of the tropical calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis. Aquaculture 280: 220–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Castro-Longoria, E. 2003. Egg production and hatching success of four Acartia species under different temperature and salinity regimes. Journal of Crustacean Biology 23 (2): 289–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen, Q., J. Sheng, Q. Lin, Y. Gao, and J. Lu. 2006. Effect of salinity on reproduction and survival of the copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei Sewell, 1919. Aquaculture 258: 575–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chesney, E.J. 2007. Copepods as live prey: A review of factors that influence the feeding success of marine fish larvae. In Copepods in aquaculture, ed. C.-S. Lee, P.J. O’Bryen, and N.H. Marcus, 133–150pp. Ames: Blackwell Publishing Professional.Google Scholar
  7. Chinnery, F.E., and J.A. Williams. 2004. The influence of temperature and salinity on Acartia (Copepoda: Calanoida) nauplii survival. Marine Biology 145: 733–738.Google Scholar
  8. Evjemo, J.O., K.I. Reitan, and Y. Olsen. 2003. Copepods as live food organisms in the larval rearing of halibut larvae (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) with special emphasis on the nutritional value. Aquaculture 227 (1): 191–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hall, C.J., and C.W. Burns. 2002. Effects of temperature and salinity on the survival and egg production of Gladioferens pectinatus Brady (Copepodas: Calanoida). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 55 (4): 557–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hernandez Molejon, O.G., and L. Alvarez-Lajonchere. 2003. Culture experiments with Oithona oculata Farran, 1913 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida), and its advantages as food for marine fish larvae. Aquaculture 219 (1): 471–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hicks, G.R., and B.C. Coull. 1983. The ecology of marine meiobenthic harpacticoid copepods. Oceanography and Marine Biology 21: 67–175.Google Scholar
  12. Holste, L., and M.A. Peck. 2006. The effects of temperature and salinity on egg production and hatching success of Baltic Acartia tonsa(Copepoda: Calanoida): A laboratory investigation. Marine Biology 148 (5): 1061–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kinne, O. 1963. The effects of temperature and salinity on marine and brackish water animals. Temperature. Oceanography and Marine Biology an Annual Review 1: 301–340.Google Scholar
  14. Kiørboe, T. 1997. Population regulation and role of mesozooplankton in shaping marine pelagic food webs. Hydrobiologia 363: 13–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Klein Breteler, W., M. Koski, and S. Rampen. 2004. Role of essential lipids in copepod nutrition: No evidence for trophic upgrading of food quality by a marine ciliate. Marine Ecology Progress Series 274: 199–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kleppel, G.S., C.A. Burkart, and L. Houchin. 1998. Nutrition and the regulation of egg production in the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. Limnology and Oceanography 43 (5): 1000–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Knuckey, R.M., G.L. Semmens, R.J. Mayer, and M.A. Rimmer. 2005. Development of an optimal microalgal diet for the culture of the calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis: Effect of algal species and feed concentration on copepod development. Aquaculture 249: 339–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Koski, M., and H. Kuosa. 1999. The effect of temperature, food concentration and female size on the egg production of the planktonic copepod Acartia bifilosa. Journal of Plankton Research 21: 1779–1790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lacoste, A., S.A. Poulet, A. Cueff, G. Kattner, A. Ianora, and M. Laabir. 2001. New evidence of the copepod maternal food effects on reproduction. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 259 (1): 85–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Leandro, S.M., P. Tiselius, and H. Queiroga. 2006. Growth and development of nauplii and copepodites of the estuarine copepod Acartia tonsa from southern Europe (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal) under saturating food conditions. Marine Biology 150 (1): 121–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lee, K.W., H.G. Park, S.M. Lee, and H.K. Kang. 2006. Effects of diets of the growth of the brackish water cyclopoid copepod Paracyclopina nana Smirnov. Aquaculture 256: 346–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Marcus, N.H., C. Richmond, C. Sedlacek, G.A. Miller, and C. Oppert. 2004. Impact of hypoxia on the survival, egg production and population dynamics of Acartia tonsa Dana. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 301 (2): 111–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Matias-Peralta, H.M., Fatimah Md Yusof, Mohamed Shariff, and Suhaila Mohamed. 2012. A tropical harpacticoid copepod, Nitocra affinis californica Lang as an effective live feed for Black Tiger Shrimp larvae Penaeus monodon Fabricius. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 35 (4): 695–710.Google Scholar
  24. McKinnon, A.D., S. Duggan, P.D. Nichols, M.A. Rimmer, G. Semmens, and B. Robino. 2003. The potential of tropical paracalanid copepods as live feeds in aquaculture. Aquaculture 223 (1): 89–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Milione, M., and C. Zeng. 2007. The effects of algal diets on population growth and egg hatching success of the tropical calanoid copepod, Acartia sinjiensis. Aquaculture 273: 656–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Payne, M.F., R.J. Rippingale, and J.J. Cleary. 2001. Cultured copepods as food for West Australian dhufish (Glaucosoma hebraicum) and pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) larvae. Aquaculture, 194 (1-2):137–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Payne, M.F., and R.J. Rippingale. 2000. Rearing West Australian seahorse, Hippocampus subelongatus, juveniles on copepod nauplii and enriched Artemia. Aquaculture 188 (3–4): 353–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Payne, Michael F., and R.J. Rippingale. 2001. Intensive cultivation of the calanoid copepod Gladioferen simparipes. Aquaculture 201 (3): 329–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Morehead, D.T., S.C. Battaglene, E.B. Metillo, M.P. Bransden, and G.A. Dunstan. 2005. Copepods as a live feed for striped trumpeter Latris lineata larvae. In Copepods in Aquaculture, 195–208. Honolulu: Blackwell Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. O’Bryen, P.J., and C.S. Lee. 2005. Culture of copepods and applications to marine fin fish larval rearing workshop discussion summary. In Copepods in aquaculture, ed. C.-S. Lee, P.J. O’Bryen, and N.H. Marcus, 245–253. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rhodes, A. 2003. Methods for high density batch culture of Nitocra lacustris, a marine harpacticoid copepod. In Proceeding of the annual larval fish conference, 449–465.Google Scholar
  32. Sampey, A., A.D. McKinnon, M.G. Meekan, and M.I. McCormick. 2007. Glimpse into guts: Overview of the feeding of larvae of tropical shorefishes. Marine Ecology Progress Series 339: 243–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Santhanam, P., and P. Perumal. 2012a. Feeding, survival, egg production and hatching rate of the marine copepod Oithona rigida Giesbrecht (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) under experimental conditions. Journal of Marine Biological Association of India 54: 38–44.Google Scholar
  34. Santhanam, P., and P. Perumal. 2012b. Effect of temperature, salinity and algal food concentration on population density, growth and survival of marine copepod Oithona rigida Giesbrecht. Indian Journal of Marine Science 41 (4): 369.Google Scholar
  35. ———. 2013. Developmental biology of brackishwater copepod Oithona rigida Giesbrecht: A laboratory investigation. Indian Journal of Marine Science 42 (2): 236–243.Google Scholar
  36. Santhanam, P., N. Jeyaraj, and K. Jothiraj. 2013. Effect of temperature and algal food on egg production and hatching of copepod, Paracalanus parvus. Journal of Environmental Biology 34 (2): 243–246.Google Scholar
  37. Shin, K., M.C. Jang, P.K. Jang, S.J. Ju, T.K. Lee, and M. Chang. 2003. Influence of food quality on egg production and viability of the marine planktonic copepod Acartia omorii. Progress in Oceanography 57 (3): 265–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stottrup, J.G. 2000. The elusive copepods: their production and suitability in marine aquaculture. Aquaculture Research 31: 703–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sun, B., and J.W. Fleeger. 1995. Sustained mass culture of Amphiascoides atopus a marine harpacticoid copepod in a recirculating system. Aquaculture 136 (3): 313–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Turner, J.T., A. Ianora, A. Miralto, M. Laabir, and F. Esposito. 2001. Decoupling of copepod grazing rates, fecundity and egg-hatching success on mixed and alternating diatom and dinoflagellate diets. Marine Ecology Progress Series 220: 187–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Uye, S., and A. Fleminger. 1976. Effects of various environmental factors on egg development of several species of Acartia in southern California. Marine Biology 38 (3): 253–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vander Lugt, K., and P.H. Lenz. 2008. Management of nauplius production in the paracalanoid, Bestiolina similis (Crustacea: Copepoda): Effects of stocking densities and culture dilution. Aquaculture 276 (1): 69–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Verity, P.G., and V. Smetacek. 1996. Organism life cycles, predation, and the structure of marine pelagic ecosystems. Marine Ecology Progress Series 130: 277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Walne, P.R. 1974. Culture of bivalve mollusc 50 years experience at Conway. Fishing News (Book) Ltd., 1–173pp.Google Scholar
  45. Zaleha, K., and F.I. Jamaludin. 2010. Culture and growth of a marine harpacticoid, Pararobertsonia sp. in different salinity and temperature. Sains Malaysiana 39 (1): 135–140.Google Scholar
  46. Zhang, J., C. Wu, D. Pellegrini, G. Romano, F. Esposito, A. Ianora, and I. Buttino. 2013. Effects of different monoalgal diets on egg production, hatching success and apoptosis induction in a Mediterranean population of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana). Aquaculture 400: 65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Nandakumar
    • 1
  • P. Santhanam
    • 1
  1. 1.Marine Planktonology & Aquaculture Laboratory, Department of Marine Science, School of Marine SciencesBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia

Personalised recommendations