Advertisement

A Method of Bio-efficacy Potential of Microalgae (Phytoplankton) for the Control of Vector Mosquitoes

  • S. Balakrishnan
  • P. Santhanam
  • N. Manickam
  • M. Srinivasan
Chapter

Abstract

Mosquitoes are the majority grave group of insects in the circumstance of public health, because they transmit various diseases, causing millions of deaths per annum. The recurrent exploit of systemic insecticides to deal with insect pests leads to the destabilization of ecosystems and enhanced confrontation to insecticides by pests, symptomatic of an obvious need for alternatives (Kalimuthu et al. 2013). Algae is a considerable part of the diet for a lot of kinds of mosquito larvae that nourish opportunistically on microorganisms, diminutive aquatic animals such as rotifers, and other tiny particulate food in their aquatic environment (Merritt et al. 1992). The larvae may filter algae from the water column, scrape them from the surface of containers or aquatic plants, or scoop them from the bottom of aquatic habitats where mosquitoes breed. Some species of phytoplankton provide nutritious food for mosquito larvae, whereas others produce allelochemicals that are toxic to mosquitoes at different stages (Kiviranta and Abdel-Hameed 1994; Gross 2003; Legrand et al. 2003; Graneli and Hansen 2006; Rey et al. 2009). It is common in nature for mosquito larvae to die before completing their development because they are poisoned by phytoplankton toxins, or they starve to death while feeding on phytoplankton that are indigestible (Ahmad et al. 2001; Marten 2007). Mosquito indigestible phytoplankton has an excellent pasture distinctiveness as a biological control representative against mosquitoes because they are naturally present in the habitats of mosquito larvae and are able to multiply and persist in these habitats. An additional most vital expansion of phytoplankton for mosquito control is the expectation that mosquitoes will not evolve conflict to their exploit (Ahmad et al. 2001).

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors thank the authorities of Bharathidasan University for providing the necessary facilities, and the first author thanks the University Grants Commission, Govt. of India, New Delhi, for financial support through UGC-Research Awardee (No. F.30-1/2014 (SA-II)/RA-2014-16-SC-TAM-4364 dated 05/02/2015). Authors give due thanks to the Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India, New Delhi, for provided microalgae culture facility through extramural project (BT/PR 5856/AAQ/3/598/2012).

References

  1. Abbott, W.S. 1925. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Ecological Entomology 18: 265–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad, R., W. Chu, H. Lee, and S. Phang. 2001. Effect of four chlorophytes on larval survival, development and adult body size of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Journal of Applied Phycology 13: 369–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad, R., W.L. Chu, Z. Ismail, H.L. Lee, and S.M. Phang. 2004. Effect of ten chlorophytes on larval survival, development and adult body size of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 35: 79–87.Google Scholar
  4. Andersen, R.A. 2005. Algal Culturing Techniques, 578. Burlington: Elsevier/Academic Press.Google Scholar
  5. Beijerinck, M.W. 1890. Kulturversuchemit Zoochloren, Lichenengonidien und and erenniederen Algen. Botanisches Zentralblatt 48: 725–785.Google Scholar
  6. Brink, J., and S. Marx. 2013. Harvesting of Hartbeespoort Dammicro-algal biomass through sand filtration and solar drying. Fuel 106: 67–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burlew, J.S., ed. 1953. Algae Culture: From Laboratory to Pilot Plant, 1–357. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington.Google Scholar
  8. Carmichael, W.W. 2001. Health effects of toxin-producing cyanobacteria: The CyanoHabs. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 7: 1393–1407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dayananda, C., R. Sarada, M.U. Rani, T.R. Shamala, and G.A. Ravishankar. 2007. Autotrophic cultivation of Botryococcus braunii for the production of hydrocarbons and exopolysaccharides in various media. Biomass and Bioenergy 31: 87–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De-Bashan, L.E., and Y. Bashan. 2010. Immobilized microalgae for removing pollutants: Review of practical aspects. Bioresource Technology 101: 1611–1627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Finney, D.J., ed. 1971. Probit Analysis, 333. London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Gerhardt, R.W. 1956. Present knowledge concerning the relationship of blue-green algae and mosquitoes in California rice fields. Proceedings of California Mosquito Control Association 22: 50–53.Google Scholar
  13. Goncalves, A.L., J.C.M. Pires, and M. Simoes. 2013. Green fuel production: Processes applied to microalgae. Environmental Chemistry Letters 11: 315–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Graneli, E., and P. Hansen. 2006. Allelopathy in harmful algae: A mechanismto compete for resources? In Ecology of Harmful Algae, ed. P. Graneli and J. Turner, 189–201. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Griffin, G. 1956. An investigation of Anabaena unispora Gardner and other cyanobacteria as a possible mosquito factor in Salt Lake County, Utah. M.Sc., thesis, Dept. Zoology, Univ. Utah.Google Scholar
  16. Grobbelaar, J.U. 2004. Algal nutrition. In Handbook of Microalgal Culture: Biotechnology and Applied Phycology, ed. A. Richmond, 97–105. IA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  17. Gross, E.M. 2003. Allelopathy of aquatic autotrophs. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 22: 313–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hallegraef, G.M. 2003. Harmful algal blooms: A global overview. In Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, ed. G.M. Hallegraef, D.M. Andersen, and A.D. Cembella, 25–49. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.Google Scholar
  19. Kalimuthu, K., C. Panneerselvam, K. Murugan, and J.S. Hwang. 2013. Green synthesi s of silver nanoparticles using Cadaba indica lam leaf extract and its larvicidal and pupicidal activity against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research 45 (2): e11. 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kawaguchi, K. 1980. Microalgae production systems in Asia. In Algae Biomass Production and Use, ed. G. Shelef and C.J. Soeder, 25–33. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press.Google Scholar
  21. Kiviranta, J., and A. Abdeel-Hameed. 1994. Toxicity of the blue green alga Oscillatoria agardhii to the mosquito Aedes aegypti and the shrimp Artemia salina. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 10: 517–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kumar, Anil, S. Wang, R. Ou, M. Samrakandi, B.T. Beerntsen, and R.T. Sayre. 2013. Development of an RNAi based microalgal larvicide to control mosquitoes. Malaria World Journal 4 (6): 1–7.Google Scholar
  23. Legrand, C., K. Rengefors, G.O. Fistarol, and E. Graneli. 2003. Allelopathy in phytoplankton -biochemical, ecological and evolutionary aspects. Phycologia 42: 406–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Marten, G.G. 1986. Mosquito control by plankton management: The potential of indigestible green algae. The Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 89: 213–222.Google Scholar
  25. ———. 2007. Larvicidal Algae. Journal of the American MosquitoControl Association 23: 177–183.Google Scholar
  26. Merritt, R.W., R.H. Dadd, and E.D. Walker. 1992. Feeding behavior, natural food, and nutritional relationships of larval mosquitoes. Annual Review Entomology 37: 349–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mutanda, T., D. Ramesh, S. Karthikeyan, S. Kumari, A. Anandraj, and F. Bux. 2011. Bioprospecting for hyperlipid producing microalgal strains for sustainable biofuel production. Bioresource Technology 102: 57–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Oh, H.M., S.J. Lee, M.H. Park, H.S. Kim, H.C. Kim, J.H. Yoon, G.S. Kwon, and B.D. Yoon. 2001. Harvesting of Chlorella vulgaris using a bioflocculant from Paenibacillus sp.AM49. Biotechnology Letters 23: 1229–1234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pires, J.C.M., M.C.M. Alvim-Ferraz, F.G. Martins, and M. Simoes. 2012. Carbon dioxide capture from flue gases using microalgae: Engineering aspects and biorefinery concept. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16: 3043–3053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rai, S.V., and M. Rajashekhar. 2015. Effect of twelve species of marine phytoplankton on larval survival and development of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. International Journal of Marine Science 5 (57): 1–5.Google Scholar
  31. Rey, J.R., P.E. Hargraves, and S.M. O’Connell. 2009. Effect of selected marine and freshwater microalgae on development and survival of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Aquatic Ecology 43: 987–997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rossignol, N., L. Vandanjon, P. Jaouen, and F. Quemeneur. 1999. Membrane technology for the continuous separation microalgae/culture medium: Compared performances of cross-flow microfiltration and ultra-filtration. Aquacultural Engineering 20: 191–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Skulberg, O.M. 2004. Bioactive chemicals in microalgae. In Handbook of Microalgal Culture: Biotechnology and Applied Phycology, ed. A. Richmond, 485–512. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd.Google Scholar
  34. Warburg, O. 1919. Uber die GreschwindilingKeit der Koti; ensarezusammensetzung in Lebendenzellen. Biochemischezeitschrift 100: 230–270.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Balakrishnan
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. Santhanam
    • 1
  • N. Manickam
    • 1
  • M. Srinivasan
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Marine ScienceSchool of Marine Sciences, Bharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  2. 2.Marine Aquarium & Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change, Government of IndiaDighaIndia
  3. 3.Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine SciencesAnnamalai UniversityParangipettaiIndia

Personalised recommendations