A Method of Bio-efficacy Potential of Microalgae (Phytoplankton) for the Control of Vector Mosquitoes

  • S. Balakrishnan
  • P. Santhanam
  • N. Manickam
  • M. Srinivasan


Mosquitoes are the majority grave group of insects in the circumstance of public health, because they transmit various diseases, causing millions of deaths per annum. The recurrent exploit of systemic insecticides to deal with insect pests leads to the destabilization of ecosystems and enhanced confrontation to insecticides by pests, symptomatic of an obvious need for alternatives (Kalimuthu et al. 2013). Algae is a considerable part of the diet for a lot of kinds of mosquito larvae that nourish opportunistically on microorganisms, diminutive aquatic animals such as rotifers, and other tiny particulate food in their aquatic environment (Merritt et al. 1992). The larvae may filter algae from the water column, scrape them from the surface of containers or aquatic plants, or scoop them from the bottom of aquatic habitats where mosquitoes breed. Some species of phytoplankton provide nutritious food for mosquito larvae, whereas others produce allelochemicals that are toxic to mosquitoes at different stages (Kiviranta and Abdel-Hameed 1994; Gross 2003; Legrand et al. 2003; Graneli and Hansen 2006; Rey et al. 2009). It is common in nature for mosquito larvae to die before completing their development because they are poisoned by phytoplankton toxins, or they starve to death while feeding on phytoplankton that are indigestible (Ahmad et al. 2001; Marten 2007). Mosquito indigestible phytoplankton has an excellent pasture distinctiveness as a biological control representative against mosquitoes because they are naturally present in the habitats of mosquito larvae and are able to multiply and persist in these habitats. An additional most vital expansion of phytoplankton for mosquito control is the expectation that mosquitoes will not evolve conflict to their exploit (Ahmad et al. 2001).



The authors thank the authorities of Bharathidasan University for providing the necessary facilities, and the first author thanks the University Grants Commission, Govt. of India, New Delhi, for financial support through UGC-Research Awardee (No. F.30-1/2014 (SA-II)/RA-2014-16-SC-TAM-4364 dated 05/02/2015). Authors give due thanks to the Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India, New Delhi, for provided microalgae culture facility through extramural project (BT/PR 5856/AAQ/3/598/2012).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Balakrishnan
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. Santhanam
    • 1
  • N. Manickam
    • 1
  • M. Srinivasan
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Marine ScienceSchool of Marine Sciences, Bharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia
  2. 2.Marine Aquarium & Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change, Government of IndiaDighaIndia
  3. 3.Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine SciencesAnnamalai UniversityParangipettaiIndia

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