A Study of Carbon Sequestration by Phytoplankton
Climate change is one of the most serious threats for sustainable development of human society. The release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere due to anthropogenic activities is one of the main causes of global warming and climate change. Reducing CO2 emission and increasing carbon storage are the two major solutions to control greenhouse effects. China is now one of the world’s largest greenhouse emitters, and actively dealing with climate change by reducing emission and increasing storage has become China’s strategic consensus for economic and social development. Oceans cover approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface, and the carbon content present in the ocean is 50 times that in the atmosphere and 20 times that in the soil (Holmén 2000). Therefore, oceans are the largest carbon pools on Earth, and it also serves as a “buffer” for climate change. Approximately 30% of the CO2 produced by anthropogenic activities is absorbed by oceans (Le Quere et al. 2014) (otherwise global warming would have become more intense). In particular, the coastal oceans are mostly affected by anthropogenic activities, which account for only 8% of the global ocean area, but the amount of 20% CO2 is taken by open oceans (Field et al. 1998).
Authors thanks the University Grants Commission, Govt. of India, New Delhi, for fellowship (MD) and Postdoctoral Fellowship (SDK) (Ref. No. F./31-1/2017/PDFSS-2017-18-TAM-13681 dated 19.06.2017).
- Boyd, P.W., A.J. Watson, C.S. Law, E.R. Abraham, T. Trull, R. Murdoch, D.C. Bakker, A.R. Bowie, K.O. Buesseler, H. Chang, M. Charette, P. Croot, K. Downing, R. Frew, M. Gall, M. Hadfield, J. Hall, M. Harvey, G. Jameson, J. LaRoche, M. Liddicoat, R. Ling, M.T. Maldonado, R.M. McKay, S. Nodder, S. Pickmere, R. Pridmore, S. Rintoul, K. Safi, P. Sutton, R. Strzepek, K. Tanneberger, S. Turner, A. Waite, and J. Zeldis. 2004. The decline and fate of an iron induced sub-arctic phytoplankton bloom. Nature 428: 549–553. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chapin, F.S., P.A. Matson, and H.A. Mooney. 2002. Principles of Ecosystems of Ecology. Vol. 405, 234–242. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Falkowshi, P., R.J. Scholes, E. Boyle, J. Canadell, D. Canfield, J. Elser, N. Gruber, K. Hibbard, P. Hogbeng, S. Linder, F.T. Mackenizie, B. Moore, T. Pedersen, Y. Arosenthal, S. Seitzinger, V. Smetacek, and W. Steffen. 2000. The global carbon cycle: A test of our knowledge of earth as a system. Science 290: 291–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Folger, P. 2009. The Carbon Cycle: Implications for Climate Change and Congress, Congressional Research Service Report RL34059, 7–57.Google Scholar
- IPCC. 2007. The physical science basis. In Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC on Climate Change, ed. S.D. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquie, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Le Quere, C., G.P. Peters, R.J. Andres, R.M. Andrew, T.A. Boden, P. Ciais, P. Friedlingstein, R.A. Houghton, G. Marland, R. Moriarty, S. Sitch, P. Tans, A. Arneth, A. Arvanitis, D.C.E. Bakker, L. Bopp, J.G. Canadell, L.P. Chini, S.C. Doney, A. Harper, I. Harris, J.I. House, A.K. Jain, S.D. Jones, E. Kato, R.F. Keeling, K. Klein Goldewijk, A. Körtzinger, C. Koven, N. Lefèvre, F. Maignan, A. Omar, T. Ono, G.H. Park, B. Pfeil, B. Poulter, M.R. Raupach, P. Regnier, C. Rödenbeck, S. Saito, J. Schwinger, J. Segschneider, B.D. Stocker, T. Takahashi, B. Tilbrook, S. van Heuven, N. Viovy, R. Wanninkhof, A. Wiltshire, and S. Zaehle. 2014. Global carbon budget 2013. Earth System Science Data 6: 235–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Martin, J.H., K.H. Coale, K.D. Johnson, S.E. Fitzwater, R.M. Garden, S.J. Tanner, C.N. Hunter, V.A. Elrod, J.L. Nowicki, T.L. Coley, R.T. Barber, S. Lindley, A.J. Watson, K. Vanscoy, C.S. Law, Mi. Liddi coat, R. Ling, T. Staton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R. Bidicare, M. Ondrusek, M. Latasa, F.J. Millero, K. Lee, W. Yao, J.Z. Zhang, G. Friederich, C. Sakamoto, F. Chavez, K. Buck, Z. Kolber, R. Greene, P. Falkowski, S.W. Chiswholm, F. Hoge, R. Swift, J. Yungel, S. Turner, P. Nightgale, A. Hatton, P. Liss, and N.W. Tindale. 2002. Testing the iron hypothesis in ecosystems of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature 371: 123–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stumm, W., and J.J. Morgan. 1981. Aquatic Chemistry: An Introduction Emphasizing Chemical Equilibria in Natural Waters. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 780p.Google Scholar