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Multistage Skarn-Related Tourmalines from the Galinge Deposit: A Significant Indicator for Varying Fluid Composition

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Part of the Springer Theses book series (Springer Theses)

Abstract

The Galinge skarn deposit, the largest iron polymetallic skarn deposit in the Qiman Tagh metallogenic belt (western China), was formed via multi-stage fluid-rock interactions. It is divided into six ore domains from east to the west. Skarn-related tourmaline is ubiquitous in the V ore domain of the Galinge deposit, occurring both in the altered basaltic andesite (Tour-I) and in the sandstone (Tour-II). The tourmaline composition in both rock types is within the dravite–uvite solid solution. Some Tour-I crystals show compositional growth zoning in which the early stage uvite cores (Gen-1) are overgrown by second-stage dravite rims (Gen-2). Some Tour-I crystals also show overgrowth rims and fracture-infilled textures (Gen-3). Some other Tour-1 tourmalines without clear growth zoning (Others) show an intermediate composition between Gen-2 and Gen-3.The varying composition of the zoned tourmalines records important information about the evolving hydrothermal fluids and host rocks. Gen-1 and Gen-2, displaying a narrow and high range of Fe2+/(Fe2+ + Mg) ratios, are much more equilibrated with mafic host rocks. The alkaline (K + Na) content of tourmalines is associated with the salinities of the ore-forming fluids. The lowest Na t K content of Gen-3 indicates that it may have been equilibrated with a low-salinity fluid environment in which the concentration of metal-chlorite complexes decreased. The Gen-3 stage is considered to be the main ore-forming event. Tour-II have similar Ca/(K + Na + Ca) ratios with Gen-1 and Gen-2 ratios, which indicates that they are contemporarily formed by the same fluid as Tour-I. Through compositional comparison of the tourmalines with those from other hydrothermal deposit types, the Galinge skarn-related tourmalines are overwhelmingly controlled by the MgFe-1 substitution mechanism. This is different from the compositions of tourmalines in porphyry, VMS, and vein-greisen type deposits, which are, respectively, controlled by the Fe3+Al-1, (Ca Mg)(Na Al)–1 and (Na Mg)(□Al)-1, and (Fe2+Fe3+)(MgAl)-1 substitution mechanisms. Different tourmaline compositions and substitution mechanisms could be used as guides for mineral exploration.

Keywords

Qiman Tagh Galinge Skarn deposit Tourmaline Hydrothermal fluids Substitution mechanism 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miao Yu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Metallogenic Prediction of Nonferrous Metals and Geological Environment Monitoring, Ministry of Education, School of Geosciences and Info-PhysicsCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.MLR Key Laboratory of Metallogeny and Mineral AssessmentInstitute of Mineral Resources, CAGSBeijingChina
  3. 3.China School of Earth and Space SciencesPeking UniversityBeijingChina

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