Rheological Properties of Biological Structures, Scaffolds and Their Biomedical Applications

Chapter

Abstract

Rheology as the science of flow properties of materials is one of the most vital concepts that have greatly attracted the attention of biomedical engineers and bioengineers over the past few decades. It has been less than a century since the science of rheology was formally introduced to the scientific society. Over the past few decades rheological properties of living things including cells and tissues have been investigated and studied thoroughly. As a result various measurement techniques have been developed and used ever since such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), optical measurement techniques, etc. Recent advancements of technology regarding submicron scale measurement enabled scientists to evaluate cellular behavior towards mechanical stimuli with ultra-precision. Data obtained from these studies have revealed vital information regarding effects of mechanical properties of cells on cellular functions such as adhesion, proliferation and migration, and differentiation. Additionally rheological properties of most tissues in human body were measured and some results have been configured into engineered scaffolds along with being used as diagnostic tools. Despite the fact that there are hundreds of studies regarding rheological properties of cells and tissues, there are still so many unsolved problems and unanswered questions concerning fabrication of ideal devices and implants that need to be solved and answered. Hence the hot topic of principles and influence of rheology on living materials has become an appealing and amusing research subject resulting in attainment of fascinating results, which so far have proven to be greatly helpful in unlocking wide range of unknowns of life itself. Of the uncountable number of researches conducted to this day regarding rheological properties of biomaterials a small portion of is discussed in this chapter as an introduction to the concept of rheology in living things and its significance.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Prof. Dr. Herbert J. Meiselman, Prof. Dr. Aysegül Temiz Artmann and Prof. Dr. Oguz K. Baskurt for their invaluable research in this field as the result of their lifetime of intelligence and hard work.

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bio3 Research Laboratory, Institute of Biomedical EngineeringBogazici UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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