Study on Effectiveness of Physical Protection and Security Management of Radioactive Sources in Medical Institutions in Malaysia

  • M. N. M. Kamari
  • M. S. Yasir
  • Z. Kayun
  • P. Muthuvelu
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Bioengineering book series (LNBE)

Abstract

Ministry of Health has joined the program of the Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) to improve the Physical Protection and Security Management (PPSM) system of radioactive sources in medical institutions in Malaysia. This study is aimed to identify the compatibility of PPSM system components, used in medical institutions in Malaysia based on documents from the IAEA as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of its execution. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Ampang Hospital, Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute and Gleneagles Intan Medical Centre was chosen as a location for research. The system was assessed through questionnaires, interviews, observations and document review. From the results, it shows the effectiveness of implementing PPSM system still at a moderate level in all medical institutions in Malaysia. Improvements can be made through collaboration with the ministry and the management of medical institutions in which several components in the PPSM system has been identified as the details of the source of radioactive material, the security plan and security functions as well as to provide exposure to the employees by continuously organizing extensive courses, seminars and workshops.

Notes

Acknowledgements

First and foremost, I would like to express my profound gratitude to my advisor, Prof. Dr. Muhamad Samudi bin Yasir for all the guidance and support throughout my research. My sincere thanks also goes to all representatives from MOH, UKMMC, Ampang’s Hospital, HUSM, AMDI and Gleaneagles Kuala Lumpur for their participation in this research.

References

  1. 1.
    FOX (2010) 9 years later, nearly 900 9/11 responders have died, survivors fight for compensation. FOX NewsGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    IAEA (2015b) IAEA welcomes US new global threat reduction initiative. IAEA, Vienna. https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/iaea-welcomes-us-new-global-threat-reduction-initiative
  3. 3.
    ElBaradei M (2014) Introductory remarks at the global threat reduction initiative partners conference (GTRI). IAEA, Vienna. https://www.iaea.org/newscenter/statements/introductory-remarks-global-threat-reduction-initiative-partners-conference
  4. 4.
    Amano A (2013) Nuclear security plan 2014–2017, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    IAEA (2014) Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: international basic safety standards. IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Popp A (2014) Regional security of radioactive sources. ANSTO, New South Wales. http://www.ansto.gov.au/BusinessServices/RegionalSecurityofRadioactiveSourcesProject/
  7. 7.
    Murray A, Popp A, Bus J (2013) Australia’s South East Asia regional security of radioactive sources project–achievements and lessons learned. In: International conference on nuclear security: enhancing global efforts. IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    PMO (2010) Nuclear security summit. Office of The Prime Minister, PutrajayaGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    IAEA (2004) Code of conduct on the safety and security of radioactive sources. IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    IAEA (2003) IAEA-TECDOC-1344: categorization of radioactive sources. IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    IAEA (2009a) IAEA nuclear security series no. 11: security of radioactive sources. IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    IAEA (2009b) IAEA nuclear security series no. 10: development, use and maintenance of the design basis threat. IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Khripunov I (2014) The human dimension of security for radioactive sources. Athens Centre for International Trade and Security, CITS., Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional, BATANGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zakariya NIK, Kahn MTE (2015) Safety, security and safeguard. Ann Nucl Energy 75(2015):292–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gandhi SK, Kang J (2013) Nuclear safety and nuclear security synergy. Ann Nucl Energy 60:357–361Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Garcia ML (2008) Design and evaluation of physical protection systems. Elsevier Inc., BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Garcia ML (2005) Vulnerability assessment of physical protection systems. Elsevier B.V., BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    IAEA (2005) Safety guide no. RS-G-1.9: categorization of radioactive sources. IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    IAEA (2015a) IAEA nuclear security series no. 23-G: security of nuclear information. IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    IAEA (2016) Revision of nuclear security series no. 11: security of radioactive material in use and storage and of associated facilities. IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    IAEA (2011) IAEA nuclear security series no. 13: nuclear security recommendations on physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities (INFCIRC/225/Revision 5). IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    IAEA (2008) IAEA nuclear security series no. 7: nuclear security culture. IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Burke LA, Steensma HK (1998) Toward a model for relating executive career experiences and firm performance. J Manag Issues 10(1):86–102Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. N. M. Kamari
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. S. Yasir
    • 2
  • Z. Kayun
    • 1
  • P. Muthuvelu
    • 1
  1. 1.Medical Radiation Surveillance Division, Ministry of HealthPutrajayaMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Science and Technology, School of Applied PhysicsNational University of MalaysiaBangiMalaysia

Personalised recommendations