The Brazilian Urban System

  • Cosmo Antonio Ignazzi
  • Reinaldo Paul Perez Machado
Part of the Advances in Geographical and Environmental Sciences book series (AGES)


Recent trends in Brazilian regional development, particularly in relation to changes in the pattern of regional concentration of production activities and in regional economic specializations, have been the subject of debate among researchers.

This work investigates these trends, seeking to address together the issues of concentration and specialization, based on indicators of formal employment during the period 2000–2010. A large group of selected municipalities is analyzed: those with more than 10,000 inhabitants in 2010, corresponding to 2615 agglomerations between municípios and metropolitan areas in Brazil.

The methodology used for the analysis at the city level involves collecting and analyzing data on the number of regular employees in all selected cities. Database used for obtaining this information has been formulated using IBGE data (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística). The results are analyzed by means of different kinds of methods in order to perform robust statistical investigation, mainly principal components analysis and ascending hierarchical clustering in order to give a broad overview of functional specialization of Brazilian agglomerations in five sectors of economic activity revealing the disparities present in an urban system distinguished by a huge territory.

Social and employment issues, affecting differently the different parts of the country, have been examined in the light of the current policies adopted to redistribute resources and improve social conditions such as the conditional cash transfer program Bolsa familia for reducing poverty and inequality and the initiative minha casa minha vida aiming to facilitate the access of Brazilian households in purchasing their first home.


Brazilian urban system Regional specialization Social policies 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cosmo Antonio Ignazzi
    • 1
  • Reinaldo Paul Perez Machado
    • 2
  1. 1.University Paris 1, UMR CNRS 8504 Géographie-citésParisFrance
  2. 2.Departamento de Geografia – FFLCH, Universidade de São PauloSao PauloBrazil

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