Advertisement

Thoracoscopic-Laparoscopic Ivor Lewis Esophagectomy

  • Xiang Wei
  • Cai Cheng
Chapter

Abstract

The Ivor Lewis surgery originally included two stages and is generally completed in a single stage in China. A thoracoscopic-laparoscopic Ivor Lewis esophagectomy is indicated by esophageal cancer involving the cardia and the inferior portion of the esophagus, while an involvement of the medial and superior portions may lead to over-tension of anastomotic stoma, and therefore should not resort to this procedure.

A well-exposed operative field is crucial to the successful completion of esophageal and gastric mobilization and abdominal lymph node dissection. It depends on the establishment and maintenance of a sufficient pneumoperitoneum, scientific patient position, and effective retraction of obstacle structures.

A successful operation is also guaranteed if completed with good cooperation between an operating surgeon and assistants, proper endoscopic resection and anastomosis, and exact hemostasis and careful postoperative treatment.

Keywords

Ivor Lewis Inferior esophageal cancer Pneumoperitoneum Resection Anastomosis 

Bibliography

  1. Angulo-Pernett F, Smythe WR. Primary lymphoepithelioma of the esophagus. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003;76(2):603–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Assouad J, Vignes S, Nakad J, et al. Single incision video-assisted thoracic surgery using a laparoscopic port. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;91(6):2020–1.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Atkins BZ, Shah AS, Hutcheson KA, et al. Reducing hospital morbidity and mortality following esophagectomy. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;78(4):1170–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Avery KN, Metcalfe C, Nicklin J, et al. Satisfaction with care: an independent outcome measure in surgical oncology. Ann Surg Oncol. 2006;13(6):817–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Azagra JS, Goergen M, Lens V, et al. Present state of the mini-invasive surgery (MIS) in esophageal and gastric cancer. Clin Transl Oncol. 2006;8(3):173–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey SH, Bull DA, Harpole DH. Outcomes after esophagectomy: a ten-year prospective cohort. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003;75(1):217–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker CR, Bailey ME, Soon Y, et al. Two-phase laparoscopic-assisted oesophagogastrectomy: a single-unit experience of 111 consecutive cases and outcomes. Surg Endosc. 2011;25(11):3658–67.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Barbetakis N, Asteriou C, Tsilikas C. Treatment of myxedema coma after major thoracic surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;91(4):1310.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Barbour AP, Jones M, Gonen M, et al. Refining esophageal cancer staging after neoadjuvant therapy: importance of treatment response. Ann Surg Oncol. 2008;15(10):2894–902.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Bardini R, Bonavina L, Asolati M, et al. Single-layered cervical esophageal anastomoses: a prospective study of two suturing techniques. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994;58(4):1087–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Ben-David K, Sarosi GA, Cendan JC, et al. Technique of minimally invasive Ivor-Lewis esophagogastrectomy with intrathoracic stapled side-to-side anastomosis. J Gastrointest Surg. 2010;14(10):1613–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Ben-David K, Rossidis G, Zlotecki RA, et al. Minimally invasive esophagectomy is safe and effective following neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2011;18(12):3324–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Berk L, Coin L. The role of neck dissection in thoracic esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 1992;53(3):549.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhat MA, Dar MA, Lone GN, et al. Use of pedicled omentum in esophagogastric anastomosis for prevention of anastomotic leak. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;82(5):1857–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Biere SS, Maas KW, Bonavina L, et al. Traditional invasive vs. minimally invasive esophagectomy: a multi-center, randomized trial (TIME-trial). BMC Surg. 2011;12(11):2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blackmon SH, Correa AM, Wynn B, et al. Propensity-matched analysis of three techniques for intrathoracic esophagogastric anastomosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;83(5):1805–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Blum MG, Bilimoria KY, Wayne JD, et al. Surgical considerations for the management and resection of esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;84(5):1717–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Bodner JC, Zitt M, Ott H, et al. Robotic-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (RATS) for benign and malignant esophageal tumors. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80(4):1202–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Boone J, van Hillegersberg R. The azygos vein: to resect or not. J Gastrointest Surg. 2008;12(12):2246–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Böttger T, Terzic A, Müller M, et al. Minimally invasive transhiatal and transthoracic esophagectomy. Surg Endosc. 2007;21(10):1695–700.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Briez N, Piessen G, Bonnetain F, et al. Open versus laparoscopically-assisted oesophagectomy for cancer: a multicentre randomised controlled phase III trial-the MIRO trial. BMC Cancer. 2011;23(11):310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Butler IN, Collins S, Memon B, et al. Minimally invasive oesophagectomy: current status and future direction. Surg Endosc. 2011;25(7):2071–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Cao Q, Dai W, Yang J, et al. Transorally inserted anvil (OrVil) for digestive tract reconstruction technique during total thoracoscopic and laparoscopic esophagectomy. Chin J Min Inv Surg. 2010;10(12):1130–2.Google Scholar
  24. Casson AG, Darnton SJ, Subramanian S, et al. What is the optimal distal resection margin for esophageal carcinoma? Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;69(1):205–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Cense HA, Law S, Wei W, et al. Pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy using the thoracoscopic approach. Surg Endosc. 2007;21(6):879–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Cerfolio RJ, Bryant AS, Minnich DJ. Starting a robotic program in general thoracic surgery: why, how, and lessons learned. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;91(6):1729–37.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Chalkiadakis G, Wihlm JM, Morand G, et al. Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus. Ann Thorac Surg. 1985;39(5):472–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Chang AC, Ji H, Birkmeyer NJ, et al. Outcomes after transhiatal and transthoracic esophagectomy for cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;85(2):424–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Chen H, Du M. Clinical analysis and application of side-to-side esophagogastric anastomosis in esophagectomy with thoracoscopy and laparoscopy for esophageal carcinoma. J Chongqing Med Univ. 2012;37(4):366–7.Google Scholar
  30. Chen H, Du M, Wu Q, et al. Application of artificial pneumothorax in thoracoscopic and laparoscopic resection of esophageal carcinoma. Acta Acad Med Mil Tert. 2012;34(8).Google Scholar
  31. Choi YS, Shim JK, Na S, et al. Pressure-controlled versus volume-controlled ventilation during one-lung ventilation in the prone position for robot-assisted esophagectomy. Surg Endosc. 2009;23(10):2286–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Clark GW, Peters JH, Ireland AP, et al. Nodal metastasis and sites of recurrence after en bloc esophagectomy for adenocarcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994;58(3):646–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Codiris-Petit G, Munoz-Bongrand N, Honigman I, et al. Minimally invasive esophagectomy for cancer: prospective evaluation of laparoscopic gastric mobilization. World J Surg. 2006;30(8):1434–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Collard JM, Romagnoli R, Goncette L, et al. Terminalized semimechanical side-to-side suture technique for cervical esophagogastrostomy. Ann Thorac Surg. 1998;65(3):814–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Conlan AA, Nicrolaou N, Hammond CA, et al. Retrosternal gastric bypass for inoperable esophageal cancer: a report of 71 patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 1983;36(4):396–401.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Conlan AA, Nicolaou N, Delikaris PG, et al. Pessimism concerning palliative bypass procedures for established malignant esophagorespiratory fistulas: a report of 18 patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 1984;37(2):108–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Costi R, Himpens J, Essola B, et al. Totally laparoscopic esophago-gastrectomy. Acta Biomed. 2004a;75(3):188–91.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Costi R, Himpens J, Bruyns J, et al. Totally laparoscopic transhiatal esophago-gastrectomy without thoracic or cervical access. Surg Endosc. 2004b;18(4):629–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Dapri G, Himpens J, Cadiere GB. Minimally invasive esophagectomy for cancer: laparoscopic transhiatal procedure or thoracoscopy in prone position followed by laparoscopy. Surg Endosc. 2008;22(4):1060–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. de Manzoni G, Pedrazzani C, Pasini F, et al. Results of surgical treatment of adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;73(4):1035–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Deng F, Kang M, Chen S. Clinical application of completely thoracoscopic and laparoscopic Ivor Lewis esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma. J Chongqing Med Univ. 2011;36(12):1417–519.Google Scholar
  42. Detterbeck FC, Egan TM. Thoracoscopy using a substernal handport for palpation. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;78(3):1031–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Dimick JB, Pronovost PJ, Cowan JA, et al. Surgical volume and quality of care for esophageal resection: do high-volume hospitals have fewer complications? Ann Thorac Surg. 2003;75(2):337–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Dimick JB, Wainess RM, Upchurch GR, et al. National trends in outcomes for esophageal resection. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;79(1):212–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. DiMusto PD, Orringer MB. Transhiatal esophagectomy for distal and cardia cancers: implications of a positive gastric margin. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;83(6):1993–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Ding C. Analysis of curative effect of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma. J Xinxiang Med Coll. 2008;25(4):386–8.Google Scholar
  47. Dittrick GW, Weber JM, Shridhar R, et al. Pathologic nonresponders after neoadjuvant chemoradiation for esophageal cancer demonstrate no survival benefit compared with patients treated with primary esophagectomy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2012;19(5):1678–84.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Eroglu A, Turkyilmaz A, Aydin Y, et al. The use of the ligaSure vessel sealing system in esophageal cancer surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;84(6):2076–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Fabian T, McKelvey AA, Kent MS, et al. Prone thoracoscopic esophageal mobilization for minimally invasive esophagectomy. Surg Endosc. 2007;21(9):1667–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Fabian T, Martin J, Katigbak M, et al. Thoracoscopic esophageal mobilization during minimally invasive esophagectomy: a head-to-head comparison of prone versus decubitus positions. Surg Endosc. 2008;22(11):2485–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Fahn HJ, Wang LS, Huang BS, et al. Tumor recurrence in long-term survivors after treatment of carcinoma of the esophagus. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994;57(3):677–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Fang W, Igaki H, Tachimori Y, et al. Three-field lymph node dissection for esophageal cancer in elderly patients over 70 years of age. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;72(3):867–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Feng M, Wang Q, Tan L, et al. Application of gastric tube in minimally invasive esophagectomy. Chin J Clin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;17(2):92–5.Google Scholar
  54. Feng MX, Wang H, Zhang Y, et al. Minimally invasive esophagectomy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study of thoracoscope versus mediastinoscope assistance. Surg Endosc. 2012;26(6):1573–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Feo CV, Villaflor VM, Patti MG. Should esophageal resections for cancer be performed in high-volume centers only? Updat Surg. 2011;63(3):147–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ferguson MK. The current status of esophageal cancer treatment in North America. Esophagus. 2004;1:161–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fernando HC, Luketich JD, Samphire J, et al. Minimally invasive operation for esophageal diverticula. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80(6):2076–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Frank A, Montgomery RC, TE LV, et al. Pleural incarceration of the gastric graft after trans-hiatal esophagectomy. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999;68(1):250–2.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Galvani CA, Corodner MV, Moser F, et al. Robotically assisted laparoscopic transhiatal esophagectomy. Surg Endosc. 2008;22(1):188–95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Gao Y, Wang Y, Chen L, et al. Clinical application of minimally invasive esophagectomy in two positions (Published in Chinese). J Sichuan Univ (Med Sci). 2011;42(6):876–7.Google Scholar
  61. Ge F, Wang Z, Zhu Z, et al. Combined endoscopic esophagectomy and gastroesophageal anastomosis in the neck: a report of 2 cases (Published in Chinese). Oncol Prog J. 2008;6(4):422–3.Google Scholar
  62. Goldfarb M, Brower S, Schwaitzberg SD. Minimally invasive surgery and cancer: controversies part 1. Surg Endosc. 2010;24(2):304–34.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Gossot D, Fourquier P, Celerier M. Thoracoscopic esophagectomy: technique and initial results. Ann Thorac Surg. 1993;56(3):667–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Groves LK, Rodriguez-Antunez A. Treatment of carcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia with concentrated preoperative irradiation followed by early operation: a progress report. Ann Thorac Surg. 1973;15(4):333–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Guo M, Cui D, Hu M, et al. Clinical research on 72 cases of esophagectomy radical operation by VATS and gasless laparoscopic. Clin J Med Officer. 2009;37(4):574–6.Google Scholar
  66. Guo M, Hu M, Sun X, et al. Comparison between video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) combined with gasless laparoscopy and traditional opentransthoracic esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Chin J Min Inv Surg. 2012;12(1):53–6.Google Scholar
  67. Gutt CN, Bintintan VV, Köninger J, et al. Robotic-assisted transhiatal esophagectomy. Langenbeck’s Arch Surg. 2006;391(4):428–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hamouda AH, Forshaw MJ, Tsigritis K, et al. Perioperative outcomes after transition from conventional to minimally invasive Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy in a specialized center. Surg Endosc. 2010;24(4):865–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Hankins JR, Cole FN, Attar S, et al. Palliation of esophageal carcinoma with intraluminal tubes: experience with 30 patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 1979;28(3):224–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Heimlich HJ. Permanent extracorporeal esophagogastric tube for esophageal replacement. Ann Thorac Surg. 1976;22(2):203.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Hichinohe T, Hiranos S, Kondos S. Video-assisted esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Surg Today. 2008;38(3):206–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hinojosa MW, Mailey BA, Smith BR, et al. Minimally invasive Ivor-Lewis esophagogastrectomy for gastric cardia cancer. Surg Endosc. 2009;23(12):2656.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Hofstetter W, Correa AM, Bekele N, et al. Proposed modification of nodal status in AJCC esophageal cancer staging system. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;84(2):365–75.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Hoppo T, Jobe BA, Hunter JG. Minimally invasive esophagectomy: the evolution and technique of minimally invasive surgery for esophageal cancer. World J Surg. 2011;35(7):1454–63.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Huang MH, Sung CY, Hsu HK, et al. Reconstruction of the esophagus with the left colon. Ann Thorac Surg. 1989;48(5):660–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Hulscher JB, Tijssen JG, Obertop H, et al. Transthoracic versus transhiatal resection for carcinoma of the esophagus: a meta-analysis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;72(1):306–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Ikeda Y, Niimi M, Kan S, et al. Thoracoscopic esophagectomy combined with mediastinoscopy via the neck. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;73(4):1329–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Ito Y, Oda M, Tsunezuka Y, et al. Reduced perioperative immune response in video-assisted versus open surgery in a rat model. Surg Today. 2009;39(8):682–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Ito E, Ozawa S, Kijima H, et al. New invasive patterns as a prognostic factor for superficial esophageal cancer. J Gastroenterol 2012. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  80. Iwahashi M, Nakamori M, Nakamura M, et al. Optimal period for the prophylactic administration of neutrophil elastase inhibitor for patients with esophageal cancer undergoing esophagectomy. World J Surg. 2011;35(7):1573–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Izumi Y, Ryotokuji T, Suzuki T, et al. Minimally invasive esophagectomy: evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenectomy for T1b thoracic esophageal cancer. Esophagus. 2011;8:267–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Jarral OA, Purkayastha S, Athanasiou T, et al. Should thoracoscopic three-stage esophagectomy be performed in the prone or left lateral decubitus position? Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2011;13(1):60–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Jarral OA, Purkayastha S, Athanasiou T, et al. Thoracoscopic esophagectomy in the prone position. Surg Endosc. 2012;26(8):2095–103.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Jiang X, Lin Z, Tan L, et al. Laparoscopy in three-incision minimally invasive esophagectomy. Chin J Min Inv Surg. 2011;11(9):825–8.Google Scholar
  85. Joob AW, Haines GK III, Kies MS, et al. Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus. Ann Thorac Surg. 1995;60(1):217–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Karaoglanoglu N, Turyilmaz A, Eroglu A. Use of pedicled omentum and endostaplers in esophagogastric anastomosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;83(6):2259–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Katlic MR, Facktor MA. Video-assisted thoracic surgery utilizing local anesthesia and sedation: 384 consecutive cases. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010;90(1):240–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. Kawoosa NU, Dar AM, Sharma ML, et al. Transthoracic versus transhiatal esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma: experience from a single tertiary care institution. World J Surg. 2011;35(6):1296–302.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Kent MS, Luketich JD, Tsai W, et al. Revisional surgery after esophagectomy: an analysis of 43 patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;86(3):975–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Kernstine KH, DeArmond DT, Sha moun DM, et al. The first series of completely robotic esophagectomies with three-field lymphadenectomy: initial experience. Surg Endosc. 2007;21(12):2285–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Kim HK, Kim S, Park JJ, et al. Sentinel node identification using Technetium-99m neomannosyl human serum albumin in esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;91(5):1517–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Kitagawa H, Akimori T, Okabayashi T, et al. Total laparoscopic gastric mobilization for esophagectomy. Langenbeck’s Arch Surg. 2009;394(4):617–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Koizumi M, Hosoya Y, Dezaki K, et al. Postoperative weight loss does not resolve after esophagectomy despite normal serum ghrelin levels. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;91(4):1032–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Konge L, Lehnert P, Hansen HJ, et al. Reliable and valid assessment of performance in thoracoscopy. Surg Endosc. 2012;26(6):1624–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Kothari SN, Boyd WC, Larson CA, et al. Training of a minimally invasive bariatric surgeon: are laparoscopic fellowships the answer. Obes Surg. 2005;15(3):323–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Krasna MJ, Mclaughlin JS. Thoracoscopic lymph node staging for esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 1993;56(3):671–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Krasna MJ, Jiao XI, Sonett JR, et al. Thoracoscopic and laparoscopic lymph node staging in esophageal cancer: do clinic pathological factors affect the outcome. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;73(6):1710–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Kunisaki C, Kosaka T, Ono HA, et al. Significance of thoracoscopy-assisted surgery with a minithoracotomy and hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery for esophageal cancer: the experience of a single surgeon. J Gastrointest Surg. 2011;15(11):1939–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Kuo CH, Hsieh CC, Chan ML, et al. Small cell carcinoma of the esophagus: a report of 16 cases from a single institution and literature review. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;91(2):373–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Kuwabara Y, Sato A, Mitani M, et al. Use of omentum for mediastinal tracheostomy after total laryngoesophagectomy. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;71(2):409–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Kwek BH, Wain JC, Aquino SL. The radiologic appearance of intercostal muscle flap. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;78(2):432–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Langley SM, Alexiou C, Bailey DH, et al. The influence of perioperative blood transfusion on survival after esophageal resection for carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;73(6):1704–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Law SY, Fok M, Wei WI, et al. Thoracoscopic esophageal mobilization for pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;70(2):418–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. Lee PC, Port JL, Paul S, et al. Predictors of long-term survival after resection of esophageal carcinoma with nonregional nodal metastases. Ann Thorac Surg. 2009;88(1):186–93.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Lewis RJ, Caccavale RJ, Sisler GE, et al. One hundred consecutive patients undergoing video-assisted thoracic operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 1992;54(3):421–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Li J, Lu M, Liu H, et al. Experience of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for esophageal carcinoma. J Modern Oncol. 2010;18(6):1139–40.Google Scholar
  107. Liakakos T. Thoracolaparoscopic esophagectomy: further improvement in the multimodal treatment of esophageal cancer. Surg Endosc. 2011;25(10):3466–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Lin CS, Chang SC, Wei YH, et al. Prognostic variables in thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 2009;87(4):1056–65.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Lin J, Xu J, Guan J, et al. Video-assisted thoracoscopic resection of esophageal carcinomas. Chin J Endosc. 2012;18(4):402–4.Google Scholar
  110. Liu Y, Kou Y. Current research on the pathogenesis and prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications of esophageal carcinoma. Chin J Clin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008;15(12):138–42.Google Scholar
  111. Liu X, Yang L. Discussion on the issues related to surgical treatment for esophageal cancer. J Chin Oncol. 2010;16(5):329–32.Google Scholar
  112. Liu J, Feng S, Chen Y, et al. Video-assisted thoracic surgery for patients with esophageal diseases. J Shanxi Med Coll Contin Educ. 2011;12(2):13–4.Google Scholar
  113. Low DE. Open versus minimally invasive esophagectomy: what is the best approach? Frame the issue. J Gastrointest Surg. 2011a;15(9):1497–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Low DE. Update on staging and surgical treatment options for esophageal cancer. J Gastrointest Surg. 2011b;15(5):719–29.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. Luketich JD, Landreneau RJ. Minimally invasive resection and mechanical cervical esophagogastric anastomotic techniques in the management of esophageal cancer. J Gastrointest Surg. 2004;8(8):927–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Luo X, Chen H, Xiang J, et al. Laparoscopic and thoracoscopic Ivor Lewis esophagectomy with thrasorally placed anvil (OrVil). Chin Oncol. 2010;20(6):471–3.Google Scholar
  117. Maas K, Biere S, Van der Peet D, et al. Minimally invasive esophagectomy: current status and future direction. Surg Endosc. 2012;26(6):1794.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Maclver RH, Sundaresan S, DeHoyos AI, et al. Mucosal tube technique for creation of esophageal anastomosis after esophagectomy. Ann Thorac Surg. 2009;87(6):1703–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Mansour KA, Picone AL, Coleman JJ 3rd. Surgery for high cervical esophageal carcinoma: experience with 11 patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 1990;49(4):597–602.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Mao Y, He J, Cheng G. Current status of surgical management of esophageal cancer in China and the future strategy. Chin J Oncol. 2010;32(6):401–3.Google Scholar
  121. Marangoni G, Villa F, Shamil E, et al. OrVil-assisted anastomosis in laparoscopic upper gastrointestinal surgery: friend of the laparoscopic surgeon. Surg Endosc. 2012;26(3):811–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. Margolis M, Alexander P, Trachiotis GD, et al. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy before multimodality therapy in patients with esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003;76(5):1694–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. Markar SR, ikesalingam A, Thrumurthy S, et al. Volume-outcome relationship in surgery for esophageal malignancy: systematic review and meta-analysis 2000-2011. J Gastrointest Surg. 2012;16(5):1055–63.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Martin DJ, Bessell JR, Chew A, et al. Thoracoscopic and laparoscopic esophagectomy. Surg Endosc. 2005;19(12):1597–601.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. Mathisen DJ, Grillo HC, Wilkins EW Jr, et al. Transthoracic esophagectomy: a safe approach to carcinoma of the esophagus. Ann Thorac Surg. 1988;45(2):137–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. Matsubara T. Rare but dangerous anomaly of the right pulmonary vein in subcarinal dissection. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003;75(3):1026.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. Maziak DE, MF MK. Video-assisted thoracic surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 1995;59(3):780–1.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Mehran RJ. Minimally invasive surgical treatment of esophageal carcinoma. Gastrointest Cancer Res. 2008;2(6):283–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. Meredith KL, Weber JM, Turaga KK, et al. Pathologic response after neoadjuvant therapy is the major determinant of survival in patients with esophageal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17(4):1159–67.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. Migliore M, Deodato G. Thoracoscopic surgery, video-thoracoscopic surgery, or VATS: a confusion in definition. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;69(6):1990–1.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Milone L, Edmondson D, Lebenthal A, et al. Multiple nerve blocks after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Surg Endosc. 2011;25(8):2731–2.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. Mizobuchi S, Nakatani H, Akimori T, et al. Novel use of weerda laryngoscope to remove early cervical esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;79(6):34–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Moreno-Osset E, Tomas-Ridocci M, Paris F, et al. Motor activity of esophageal substitute (stomach, jejunal, and colon segments). Ann Thorac Surg. 1986;41(5):515–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. Moskovitz AH, Rizk NP, Venkatraman E, et al. Mortality increases for octogenarians undergoing esophagogastrectomy for esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;82(6):2031–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. Motoyama S, Saito R, Okuyama M, et al. Treating gastric tube cancer with distal gastrectomy preserving the gastroepiploic artery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81(2):751–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. Murray GF, Wilcox BR, Starek PJ. The assessment of operability of esophageal carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 1977;23(5):393–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. Nagatani S, Shimada Y, Kondo M, et al. A strategy for determining which thoracic esophageal cancer patients should undergo cervical lymph node dissection. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80(5):1881–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Nakamura T, Ota M, Narumiya K, et al. Partial esophagectomy for a superficial carcinoma arising from the mid-esophageal diverticulum. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;58(3):163–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. Natsugoe S, Okumura H, Matsumoto M, et al. Reconstruction of recurrent laryngeal nerve with involvement by metastatic node in esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;79(6):1886–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. Nguyen NT, Follette DM, Lemoine PH, et al. Minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;72(2):593–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. Nguyen NT, Longoria M, Sabio A, et al. Preoperative laparoscopic ligation of the left gastric vessels in preparation for esophagectomy. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81(6):2318–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. Nguyen NT, Nguyen XM, Reavis KM, et al. Minimally invasive esophagectomy with and without gastric ischemic conditioning. Surg Endosc. 2012;26(6):1637–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. Nieponice A, Gilbert TW, Badylak SF. Reinforcement of esophageal anastomoses with an extracellular matrix scaffold in a canine model. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;82(6):2050–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. Ninomiya I, Osugi H, Fujimura T, et al. Results of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for esophageal cancer during the induction period. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008;56(3):119–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. Nishimaki T, Shimoji H, Sunagawa H. Recent changes and the future roles of esophageal cancer surgery. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;10(6):324–32.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Noshiro H, Nagai E, Shimizu S, et al. Minimally invasive radical esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Esophagus. 2007;4:59–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Olak J, Detsky A. Surgical decision analysis: esophagectomy/esophagogastrectomy with or without drainage? Ann Thorac Surg. 1992;53(3):493–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. Omura K, Misaki T, Watanabe Y, et al. Reconstruction with free jejunal autograft after pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994;57(1):112–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. Orringer MB. Transthoracic versus transhiatal esophagectomy: what difference does it make? Ann Thorac Surg. 1987;44(2):116–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. Orringer MB, Skinner DB. Unusual presentations of primary and secondary esophageal malignancies. Ann Thorac Surg. 1971;11(4):305–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. Ott K, Bader FG, Lordick F, et al. Surgical factors influence the outcome after Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy with intrathoracic anastomosis for adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction: a consecutive series of 240 patients at an experienced center. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16(4):1017–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. Pantvaidya GH, Pramesh CS, Deshpande MS, et al. Small cell carcinoma of the esophagus: the Tata Memorial Hospital experience. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;74(6):1924–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. Parker M, Bowers SP, Goldberg RF, et al. Transcervical videoscopic esophageal dissection during two-field minimally invasive esophagectomy: early patient experience. Surg Endosc. 2011a;25(12):3865–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. Parker M, Pfluke JM, Shaddix KK, et al. Transcervical videoscopic esophageal dissection in minimally invasive esophagectomy. Surg Endosc. 2011b;25(12):941–2.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. Payne WS. Palliation of esophageal carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 1979;28(3):208–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. Pennathur A, Luketich JD. Resection for esophageal cancer: strategies for optimal management. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;85(2):751–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Pennathur A, Awais O, Luketich JD. Technique of minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010a;89(6):2159–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Pennathur A, Zhang J, Chen H, et al. The “Best Operation” for esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010b;89(6):2163–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Pennington DG. The impact of new technology on cardiothoracic surgical practice. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81(1):10–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. Perry Y, Fernando HC, Buenaventura PO, et al. Minimally invasive esophagectomy in the elderly. JSLS. 2002;6(4):299–304.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  161. Perry KA, Enestvedt CK, Diggs BS, et al. Perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic transhiatal inversion esophagectomv compare favorably with those of combined thoracoscopic-laparoscopic esophagectomy. Surg Endosc. 2009;23(9):2147–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  162. Pramesh CS, Mistry RC, Deshpande RK, et al. Do we need more trials of postoperative radiotherapy after esophagectomy? Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;77(5):1878–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. Prenzel KL, Bollschweiler E, Schröder W, et al. Prognostic relevance of skip metastases in esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010;90(5):1662–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. Pugliese R, Maggioni D, Sansonna F, et al. Subtotal gastrectomy with D2 dissection by minimally invasive surgery for distal adenocarcinoma of the stomach: results and 5-year survival. Surg Endosc. 2010;24(10):2594–602.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. Puntambekar SP, Agarwal GA, Joshi SN, et al. Thoracolaparoscopy in the lateral position for esophageal cancer: the experience of a single institution with 112 consecutive patients. Surg Endosc. 2010;24(10):2407–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  166. Reed MF, Tolis G Jr, Edil BH, et al. Surgical treatment of esophageal high-grade dysplasia. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;79(4):1110–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  167. Sanders G, Borie F, Husson E, et al. Minimally invasive transhiatal esophagectomy: lessons learned. Surg Endosc. 2007;21(7):1190–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  168. Sato M, Ando N, Harada H, et al. Vascular pedicled jejunal Roux-en-Y reconstruction with supercharge technique for necrosis of the gastric tube following subtotal esophagectomy. Esophagus. 2007;4:87–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Schooppmann S, Prager G, Langer F, et al. Selected commentary to “fifty-five minimally invasive esophagectomies: a single center experience”. Eur Surg. 2009;41(4):194–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Schoppmann SF, Prager G, Langer F, et al. Fifty-five minimally invasive esophagectomies: a single centre experience. Anticancer Res. 2009;29(7):2719–25.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  171. Schoppmann SF, Prager G, Langer FB, et al. Open versus minimally invasive esophagectomy: single-center case controlled study. Surg Endosc. 2010;24(12):3044–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. Schroeder W, Hoelscher AH. Response-the resection of the azygos vein-necessary or redundant extension of transthoracic esophagectomy. J Gastrointest Surg. 2008;12(7):2248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Schuchert MJ, Luketich JD, Landreneau RJ, et al. Minimally invasive esophagomyotomy in 200 consecutive patients: factors influencing postoperative outcomes. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;85(5):1729–34.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. Scipione CN, Chang AC, Pickens A, et al. Transhiatal esophagectomy in the profoundly obese: implications and experience. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;84(2):376–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  175. Sgourakis G, Gockel I, Radtke A, et al. Minimally invasive versus open esophagectomy: meta-analysis of outcomes. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55(11):3031–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. Shah R, Jobe BA. Open versus minimally invasive esophagectomy: what is the best approach? Minimally invasive esophagectomy. J Gastrointest Surg. 2011;15(9):1503–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. Shah RD, Cao A, Golenberg L, et al. Performance of basic manipulation and intracorporeal suturing tasks in a robotic surgical system: single- versus dual-monitor views. Surg Endosc. 2009;23(4):727–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  178. Shahian DM, Normand SL. The volume-outcome relationship: from Luft to leapfrog. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003;75(3):1048–58.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  179. Shahian DM, Neptune WB, Ellis FH Jr, et al. Transthoracic versus extrathoracic esophagectomy: mortality, morbidity, and long-term survival. Ann Thorac Surg. 1986;41(3):237–46.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  180. Shaligram A, Meyer A, Simorov A, et al. Survey of minimally invasive general surgery fellows training in robotic surgery. J Robotic Surg. 2013;7(2):131–6. [Epub ahead of print]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Shao L, Xiang J. Situation of endoscopic esophagectomy. Chin J Oncol. 2011;21(7):528–32.Google Scholar
  182. Shiraishi T, Kawahara K, Shirakusa T, et al. Risk analysis in resection of thoracic esophageal cancer in the era of endoscopic surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81(3):1083–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  183. Skinner DB. Technical and scientific advances in general thoracic surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 1990;49(1):14–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. Skinner DB, TR DM. Permanent extracorporeal esophagogastric tube for esophageal replacement. Ann Thorac Surg. 1976;22(2):107–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  185. Sodeyama H, Matsuo K, Ishizaka K, et al. Platysma musculocutaneous flap for reconstruction of trachea in esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 1990;50(3):485–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  186. Solaini L, Prusciano F, Bagioni P, et al. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) of the lung. Surg Endosc. 2008;22(2):298–310.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  187. SR DM. Vagal-sparing esophagectomy: is it a useful addition? Ann Thorac Surg. 2010;89(6):2156–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Sterling RP, Kuykendall RC, Carmichael MJ, et al. Unusual sequelae of colon interposition for esophageal reconstruction: late obstruction requiring reoperation. Ann Thorac Surg. 1984;38(3):292–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  189. Stewart JR, Sarr MG, Sharp KW, et al. Transhiatal (blunt) esophagectomy for malignant and benign esophageal disease: clinical experience and technique. Ann Thorac Surg. 1985;40(4):343–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  190. Stiles BM, Mirza F, Port JL, et al. Predictors of cervical and recurrent laryngeal lymph node metastases from esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010;90(6):1805–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  191. Suda K, Ishida Y, Kavvamura Y, et al. Robot-assisted thoracoscopic lymphadenectomy a- long the left recurrent laryngeal nerve for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the prone position: technical report and short-term outcomes. World J Surg. 2012;36(7):1608–16. [Epub ahead of print]PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  192. Sundaram A, Geronimo JC, Willer BL, et al. Survival and quality of life after minimally invasive esophagectomy: a single-surgeon experience. Surg Endosc. 2012;26(1):168–76.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. Sundaresan S, Langer B, Oliver T, et al. Standards for thoracic surgical oncology in a single-payer healthcare system. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;84(2):693–701.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  194. Swanson SJ, Batirel HF, Bueno R, et al. Transthoracic esophagectomy with radical mediastinal and abdominal lymph node dissection and cervical esophagogastrostomy for esophageal carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;72(6):1918–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  195. Swanstrom LL. Minimally invasive surgical approaches to esophageal cancer. J Gastrointest Surg. 2002;6(4):522–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  196. Szentpetery S, Wolfgang T, Lower RR. Pull-through esophagectomy without thoracotomy for esophageal carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 1979;27(5):399–403.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  197. Tachibana M, Kinugasa S, Shibakita M, et al. Surgical treatment of superficial esophageal cancer. Langenbeck’s Arch Surg. 2006;391(4):304–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Tachimori Y, Kato H, Watanabe H, et al. Neck ultrasonography for thoracic esophageal carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994;57(5):1180–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  199. Tan TM, Okada M. The efficiency of absorbable clips in minimally invasive surgery. Surg Today. 1999;29(8):828–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  200. Tichansky DS, Taddeucci RJ, Harper J, et al. Minimally invasive surgery fellows would perform a wider variety of cases in their “ideal” fellowship. Surg Endosc. 2008;22(3):650–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  201. Tong J, Wang Y, Wu Q, et al. Video-assisted thoracoscopy in esophagectomy (Published in Chinese). Acta Univ Med Nanjing (Natur Sci). 2008;28(7):940–1.Google Scholar
  202. Torgersen Z, Sundaram A, Hoshino M, et al. Prognostic implications of lymph adenectomy in esophageal cancer after neo-adjuvant therapy: a single center experience. J Gastrointest Surg. 2011;15(10):1769–76.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  203. Tseng YL, Wu MH, Lin MY, et al. Redoing reconstruction of the esophagus using remnants of the ileo-left colon aided by microvascular anastomosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;71(5):1695–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  204. Udagawa H, Ueno M, Kinoshita Y. Rationale for video-assisted radical esophagectomy. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009;57(3):127–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  205. Uenosono Y, Arigami T, Yanagita S, et al. Sentinel node navigation surgery is acceptable for clinical T1 and N0 esophageal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2011;18(7):2003–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  206. Unruh HW, Pagliero KM. Pulsion intubation versus traction intubation for obstructing carcinomas of the esophagus. Ann Thorac Surg. 1985;40(4):337–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  207. Urschel JD, Urschel DM. Volume outcome relationship in thoracic surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;70(3):1001.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  208. Varghese TK Jr, Wood DE, Farjah F, et al. Variation in esophagectomy outcomes in hospitals meeting leapfrog volume outcome standards. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;91(4):1003–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  209. Veeramachaneni NK, Zoole JB, Decker PA, et al. Lymph node analysis in esophageal resection: American college of surgeons oncology group Z0060 trial. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;86(2):418–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  210. Veeramaotoo D, Taylor C, Wajed SA. Minimally invasive esophagectomy with two-field lymphadenectomy. Surg Endosc. 2011;25(9):3110–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Veeramootoo D, Shore AC, Wajed SA. Randomized controlled trial of laparoscopic gastric ischemic conditioning prior to minimally invasive esophagectomy, the LOGIC trial. Surg Endosc. 2012;26(7):1822–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  212. Vigneswaran WT, Trastek VF, Pairolero PC, et al. Transhialal esophagectomy for carcinoma of the esophagus. Arm Thorac Surg. 1993;56(4):838–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Wajed SA, Veeramootoo D, Shore AC. Surgical optimisation of the gastric conduit for minimally invasive oesophagectomy. Surg Endosc. 2012;26(1):271–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  214. Wang W, Chen L. Current situation and prospective development of surgical treatment for esophageal carcinoma. Chin J Clin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011;18(1):58–65.Google Scholar
  215. Wang T, Yan T. Situation and evaluation of video-assisted thoracoscopic minimally invasive surgery for esophageal cancer (Published in Chinese). Chin J Min Inv Surg. 2008;8(7):661–3.Google Scholar
  216. Wang BY, Goan YG, Hsu PK, et al. Tumor length as a prognostic factor in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;91(3):887–93.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  217. Watson TJ. Robotic esophagectomy: is it an advance and what is the future? Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;85(2):757–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Witteman BP, Foxwell TJ, Monsheimer S, et al. Transoral endoscopic inner layer esophagectomy: management of high-grade dysplasia and superficial cancer with organ preservation. J Gastrointest Surg. 2009;13(12):2104–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  219. Wright CD, Mathisen DJ, Wain JC, et al. Reinforced primary repair of thoracic esophageal perforation. Ann Thorac Surg. 1995;60(2):245–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  220. Wu B, Xue L, Qiu M, et al. Video-assisted mediastinoscopic transhiatal esophagectomy combined with laparoscopy for esophageal cancer. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2010;31(5):13z.Google Scholar
  221. Xu K, Zhao J, Lu J. Analysis of video-assist thoracoscopic esophagectomy in 10 cases (Published in Chinese). J Clin Med Pract. 2009;13(11):37–8.Google Scholar
  222. Xu B, Xu M, Wei D, et al. Complete video-assisted thoracic surgery radical operation for esophageal cancer: analysis of 16 cases. Anhui Med Pharm J. 2010;14(7):804–6.Google Scholar
  223. Yamada S, Kosaka A, Masuda M, et al. Minimally invasive lung and pleural biopsies using 2-mm and standard thoracoscopic equipment, supported mini-videoendoscopy. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2000;48(11):700–2.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  224. Yamamoto S, Kawahara K, Maekawa T, et al. Minimally invasive esophagectomy for stage I and II esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80(6):2070–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  225. Yoshida Y, Okamura T, Ezaki T, et al. Predictors of postoperative distant recurrences in esophageal carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994;57(4):886–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  226. Yuasa Y, Seike J, Yoshida T, et al. Sentinel lymph node biopsy using intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence imaging navigated with preoperative CT lymphography for superficial esophageal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2012;19(2):486–93.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  227. Yuequan J, Shifeng C, Bing Z. Prognostic factors and family history for survival of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients after surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010;90(3):908–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  228. Zhang Y, Zhong N, Wu X. Complete video-assisted radical esophagectomy: clinical experience with 31 cases. Acad J Second Mil Med Univ. 2011;32(12):1378–9.Google Scholar
  229. Zhang R, Wang Y, Zuo J, et al. Combining thoracoscopy and laparoscopy for treatment of esophageal carcinoma in 15 patients. Anhui Med J. 2012;31(9):1056–8.Google Scholar
  230. Zhang Y, Zhang X, Ji C, et al. The therapeutic results of thoracoscopic esophagectomy (Published in Chinese). J Qiqihar Med Coll. 2011;30(6):693.Google Scholar
  231. Zhao T, Wang K, Huang Y, et al. Experience from total thoracoscopic-laparoscopic esophagectomy (Published in Chinese). Med Pharm Yunnan. 2011a;32(3):331.Google Scholar
  232. Zhao SH, Xue Q, Ye B, et al. Synchronous primary carcinosarcoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the esophagus. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011b;91(3):926–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  233. Zhu K, Wang F, Zhang D, et al. Laparoscopy in three-incision minimally invasive Esophagectomy (Published in Chinese). Chin J Clin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;15(12):909–12.Google Scholar
  234. Zhu Z, Tong J, Wang Y, et al. Application of gastric tube in thoracoscopic-laparoscopic esophagectomy (Published in Chinese). J Clin Med Pract. 2011;15(7):62–4.Google Scholar
  235. Zingg U, McQuinn A, DiValentino D, et al. Minimally invasive versus open esophagectomy for patients with esophageal cancer. Ann Thorac Surg. 2009;87(3):911–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and Huazhong University of Science and Technology Press 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiang Wei
    • 1
  • Cai Cheng
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cardiothoracic SurgeryTongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations