Endoscopic Diagnosis of Esophagogastric Varices

  • Seishu HayashiEmail author


A system for the precise evaluation and recording of esophagogastric varices is essential for the management of portal hypertension. General rules for recording endoscopic findings of esophageal varices were initially proposed in 1980 and revised in 1991. These rules have gradually been accepted and widely used in Japan and other countries. However, due to the development of endoscopic treatment (sclerotherapy and ligation) and interventional radiology for esophagogastric varices, the evaluation and recording of gastric varices as well as a description of mucosal changes after variceal treatment have been required, and several revised rules were proposed. The most recently revised rules are “The General Rules for Study of Portal Hypertension” (3rd edition (2013)), which comprise six main categories: location, form, color, red color sign, bleeding sign, and mucosal finding.


Endoscopic findings Esophageal varices Gastric varices Red color sign Portal hypertension 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal MedicineTokyo Metropolitan Health and Medical Treatment Corporation Ookubo HospitalTokyoJapan

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