Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria: Diversity and Applications

  • Maya Verma
  • Jitendra Mishra
  • Naveen Kumar AroraEmail author


The rhizosphere is the region around plant roots where maximum microbial activities occur. In the rhizosphere both beneficial and harmful activities of microorganisms affect plant growth and development. The mutualistic rhizospheric bacteria which improve the plant growth and health are known as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). They are of much importance due to their ability to help the plant in diverse manners. PGPR such as Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Arthrobacter, Achromobacter, Micrococcus, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Agrobacterium, Pantoea, and Serratia are now very well known. Application of PGPR as bioinoculants/bioformulations is found to be very effective in enhancing crop productivity in a sustainable way. The use of PGPR in agriculture is also ecologically important as the synthetic chemicals used in agriculture are a severe threat to agroecosystems.


Rhizosphere PGPR Bioinoculants Agriculture Agroecosystem 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maya Verma
    • 1
  • Jitendra Mishra
    • 1
  • Naveen Kumar Arora
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Microbiology, School for Environmental SciencesBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar UniversityLucknowIndia

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