Advertisement

Environmental Health Hazards of Post-Methanated Distillery Effluent and Its Biodegradation and Decolorization

  • Sangeeta Yadav
  • Ram Chandra
Chapter

Abstract

Anaerobically digested distillery effluent is a mixture of complex organic and inorganic pollutants which is composed of several plant sterols which do not only affect the water quality but also aquatic flora and fauna. Research has revealed the adverse effects of post-methanated distillery effluent (PMDE) on the seed germination and plant growth of Phaseolus mungo even at lower concentrations. Studies have also showed the adverse effect on soil fertility by inhibiting the nitrogen-fixing bacteria and root nodulation. The major colorant of distillery effluent is melanoidin, reaction product of amino-carbonyl compounds at elevated temperature in the sugar industries and distilleries due to condensation reaction. Due to its high solubility in aquatic ecosystem and negative charge, it makes complexation with all the humic substances and heavy metals in the environment. Therefore, the decolorization and degradation of PMDE is still a global challenge due to its complexity. The physical, chemical, and biological techniques have been attempted for its detoxification and color removal but still warranted for its feasible application. Manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase have been reported as key enzymes from fungi and bacteria. During the degradation process of PMDE, different metabolic products through GC-MS/MS analysis have also been characterized. The integration of bacterial treatment with constructed wetland plant treatment (Phragmites communis, Typha angustifolia, and Cyperus esculentus) technique has been reported recently as an effective approach for decolorization and degradation of PMDE. The major challenge of PMDE biodegradation and decolorization is its high total dissolved solids (TDS) containing complex organic pollutants including heavy metals. The high TDS is a result of precipitation of metal sulfides during anaerobic digestion of distillery spentwash due to complexation of heavy metals and sulfates which impose inhibitory effects on the microorganisms, consequently inhibiting the biodegradation process. Several complex organic pollutants present in PMDE have been also reported as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) which directly affect the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

Keywords

Degradation Decolorization Ligninolytic enzymes Metabolites Phytoremediation Post-methanated distillery effluent 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, for the financial assistance to project vide letter no BT/PR13922/BCE/8/1129/2015.

References

  1. Bharagava, R. N., & Chandra, R. (2010). Biodegradation of the major colour containing compounds in distillery wastewater by an aerobic bacterial culture and characterization of their metabolites. Biodegradation, 21, 703–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bharagava, R. N., Chandra, R., & Singh, S. K. (2006). Elucidation of chemical structure of phenolic compounds by H1NMR and GC-mass spectrometry present in anaerobically digested distillery effluent. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, 26(11), 1015–1018.Google Scholar
  3. Bharagava, R. N., Chandra, R., & Rai, V. (2008). Phytoextraction of trace elements and physiological changes in Indian mustard plants (Brassica nigra L.) grown in post methanated distillery effluent (PMDE) irrigated soil. Bioresource Technology, 99, 8316–8324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bharagava, R. N., Chandra, R., & Rai, V. (2009). Isolation and characterization of aerobic bacteria capable of the degradation of synthetic and natural melanoidins from distillery wastewater. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 25, 737–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Billore, S. K., Singh, N., Ram, H. K., et al. (2001). Treatment of a molasses based distillery effluent in a constructed wetland in central India. Water Science and Technology, 44, 441–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borja, R., Martin, A., Maestro, R., et al. (1993). Enhancement of the anaerobic digestion of wine distillery wastewater by the removal of phenolic inhibitors. Bioresource Technology, 45(2), 99–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Camarero, S., Bocchini, P., Galletti, G. C., et al. (1999). Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of phenolic and etherified units in natural and industrial lignins. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 13, 630–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cammerer, B., & Kroh, L. W. (1995). Investigation of the influence of reaction conditions on the elementary composition of melanoidins. Food Chemistry, 53, 55–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chandra, R., & Sangeeta, Y. (2011). Phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn from aqueous solution using Phragmites communis, Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 13, 580–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chandra, R., & Srivastava, A. (2004). Toxicological evaluation of bacteria decolourised anaerobically treated distillery effluent with common duckweed (Lemna minor). Journal of Environmental Biology, 25, 93–98.Google Scholar
  11. Chandra, R., Kumar, K., & Singh, J. (2004). Impact of anaerobically treated and untreated (raw) distillery effluent irrigation on soil microflora, growth, total chlorophyll and protein contents of Phaseolus aureus L. Journal of Environmental Biology, 25(4), 381–385.Google Scholar
  12. Chandra, R., Raj, A., Purohit, H. J., et al. (2007). Characterization and optimization of three potential aerobic bacterial strains for kraft lignin degradation from pulp paper waste. Chemosphere, 67, 839–846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chandra, R., Bharagava, R. N., & Rai, V. (2008a). Melanoidins as major colorant in sugarcane molasses based distillery wastewater and its degradation. Bioresource Technology, 99, 4648–4660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chandra, R., Yadav, S., & Mohan, D. (2008b). Effect of distillery sludge on seed germination and growth parameters of green gram (Phaseolus mungo L.). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 152, 431–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chandra, R., Sangeeta, Y., Bharagava, R. N., et al. (2008c). Bacterial pretreatment enhances removal of heavy metals during treatment of post-methanated distillery effluent by Typha angustata L. Journal of Environmental Management, 88, 1016–1024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chandra, R., Bharagava, R. N., Yadav, S., & Mohan, D. (2009). Accumulation and distribution of toxic metals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Indian mustard (Brassica campestris L.) irrigated with distillery and tannery effluents. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 162, 1514–1521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen, T. Y., Kao, C. M., Yeh, T. Y., et al. (2006). Application of a constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment: A pilot-scale study. Chemosphere, 64, 497–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. D’Souza, D. T., Tiwari, R., Sah, A. K., et al. (2006). Enhanced production of laccase by a marine fungus during treatment of coloured effluents and synthetic dyes. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 38, 504–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dahiya, J., Singh, D., & Nigam, P. (2001). Decolourisation of molasses wastewater by cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens immobilized on porous cellulose carrier. Bioresource Technology, 78, 111–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dehorter, B., & Blondeau, R. (1993). Isolation of an extracellular Mn dependent enzyme mineralizing melanoidins from the white rot fungus Trametes versicolour. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 109, 117–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Environment (Protection) Amendment Rules. (2008). On waste water generation standards Substituted by Rule 2(ii) (a) of the notified by G.S.R.186 (E), dated 18 Mar 2008.Google Scholar
  22. Eusibio, A., Petruccioli, M., Lageiro, M., et al. (2004). Microbial characterization of activated sludge in jet-loop bioreactors treating winery wastewater. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 31, 29–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ghosh, M., Ganguli, A., & Tripathi, A. K. (2002). Treatment of anaerobically digested distillery spentwash in a two-stage bioreactor using Pseudomonas putida and Aeromonas sp. Process Biochemistry, 37, 857–862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ghosh, M., Verma, S. C., Mengoni, A., et al. (2004). Enrichment and identification of bacteria capable of reducing chemical oxygen demand of anaerobically treated molasses spentwash. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 96, 1278–1286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gonzalez, T., Terron, M. C., Yague, S., et al. (2000). Pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry monitoring of fungal-biotreated distillery wastewater using Trametes sp. I-62 (CECT 20197). Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 14, 1417–1424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hati, K. M., Biswas, A. K., Bandyopadhyay, K. K., et al. (2007). Soil properties and crop yields on a vertisol in India with application of distillery effluent. Soil and Tillage Research, 92, 60–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hodge, J. E. (1953). Chemistry of browning reactions in model systems. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1, 928–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hofmann, T. (1998). Studies on melanoidin-type colorants generated from the Maillard reaction of protein-bound lysine and furan-2-carboxaldehyde-chemical characterisation of a red coloured domaine. European Food Research and Technology, 206, 251–258.Google Scholar
  29. Jain, N., Minocha, A. K., & Verma, C. L. (2002). Degradation of predigested distillery effluent by isolated bacterial strains. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 40, 101–105.Google Scholar
  30. Jain, N., Bhatia, A., Kausik, R., et al. (2005). Impact of post methanation distillery effluent irrigation on ground water quality. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 110, 243–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jones, A. D., Tier, C. M., & Wilkins, J. P. G. (1998). Analysis of the Maillard reaction products of b-lactoglobulin and lactose in skimmed milk powder by capillary electrophoresis and electrospray mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography, 822, 147–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kalavathi, D. F., Uma, L., & Subramanian, G. (2001). Degradation and metabolization of the pigment-melanoidin in distillery effluent by marine cyanobacterium Oscillatoria boryana BDU. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 29, 246–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kambe, T. N., Shimomura, M., Nomura, N., et al. (1999). Decolourization of molasses wastewater by Bacillus sp. under thermophilic and anaerobic conditions. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 87, 119–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kandarakis, E. D., Bourguignon, J. P., Giudice, L. C., et al. (2009). Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: An Endocrine Society scientific statement. Endocrine Reviews, 30(4), 293–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kaushik, A., Nisha, R., Jagjeeta, K., et al. (2005). Impact of long and short term irrigation of a sodic soil with distillery effluent in combination with bioamendments. Bioresource Technology, 96, 1860–1866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Khairnar, P., Chavan, F., & Diware, V. R. (2013). Generation of energy from distillery waste water. Pratibha: International Journal of Science, Spirituality, Business and Technology, 2(1), 29–35.Google Scholar
  37. Kowalska, A., Bodzek, M., & Bohdziewicz, J. (1998). Biodegradation of phenols and cyanides with immobilized microorganisms. Process Biochemistry, 33, 189–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Krishnanand, Y., Maillacheruvu, G. F. P., et al. (1993). Sulfide toxicity in anaerobic systems fed sulfate and various organics. Water Environment Research, 65(2), 100–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kumar, P., & Chandra, R. (2004). Detoxification of distillery effluent through Bacillus thuringiensis (MTCC 4714) enhanced phytoremediation potential of Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schliden. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 73, 903–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kumar, S., & Viswanathan, L. (1991). Production of biomass, carbon dioxide, volatile acids, and their interrelationship with decrease in chemical oxygen demand, during distillery waste treatment by bacterial strains. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 13, 179–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lee, C. M., Chichester, C., & Lee, T. C. (1977). Physiological consequences of browned food products. Proceedings of the IVth international congress of food science and technology.Google Scholar
  42. Lee, T. H., Aoki, H., Sugano, Y., et al. (2000). Effect of molasses on the production and activity of dye-decolourizing peroxidase from Geotrichum candidum Dec 1. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 89, 545–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mansur, M., Suarez, T., Fernandez-Larrea, J., et al. (1997). Identification of a Laccase gene family in the new lignindegrading basidiomycete CECT 20197. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 63, 2637–2646.Google Scholar
  44. McCartney, D. M., & Oleszkiewicz, J. A. (1991). Competition between methanogens and sulfate reducers: Effect of COD: Sulfate ratio and acclimation. Water Environment Research, 65(5), 655–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Miyata, N., Iwahori, K., & Fujita, M. (1998). Manganese independent and dependent decolourisation of melanoidin by extracellular hydrogen peroxide and peroxidases from Coriolus hirsutus pellets. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering, 85, 550–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mohana, S., Desai, C., & Madamwar, D. (2007). Biodegradation and decolourization of anaerobically treated distillery spentwash by a novel bacterial consortium. Bioresource Technology, 98, 333–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ohmomo, S., Itoh, N., Wantanabe, Y., et al. (1985). Continuous decolorization of molasses wastewater with mycelia of Coriolus versicolor Ps4a. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 49, 2551–2555.Google Scholar
  48. Ohmomo, S., Daengsabha, W., Yoshikawa, H., et al. (1988). Screening of anaerobic bacteria with the ability to decolourize molasses melanoidin. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 57, 2429–2435.Google Scholar
  49. Panicker, S., Singh, A., & Agnihotri, S. (2015). Decolorization of biomethanated distillery effluent by immobilized enzymes. International Journal of Bioassays, 4(11), 4518–4522.Google Scholar
  50. Patel, A., Pawar, P., Mishra, S., et al. (2001). Exploitation of marine cyanobacteria for removal of colour from distillery effluent. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, 21, 1118–1121.Google Scholar
  51. Petruccioli, M., Duarte, J. C., Eusibio, A., et al. (2002). Aerobic treatment of winery wastewater using a jet –loop activated sludge reactor. Process Biochemistry, 37, 821–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ramakritinan, C. M., Kumaraguru, A. K., & Balasubramanian, M. P. (2005). Impact of distillery effluent on carbohydrate metabolism of freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio. Ecotoxicology, 14, 693–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rattan, R. K., Datta, S. P., Chhonkar, P. K., et al. (2005). Long-term impact of irrigation with sewage effluents on heavy metal content in soils, crops and ground water-A case study. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 109, 310–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sangave, P. C., & Pandit, A. B. (2006a). Enhancement in biodegradability of distillery wastewater using enzymatic pretreatment. Journal of Environmental Management, 78, 77–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sangave, P. C., & Pandit, A. B. (2006b). Ultrasound and enzyme assisted biodegradation of distillery wastewater. Journal of Environmental Management, 80, 36–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sangeeta, Y., & Chandra, R. (2006). Effect of post methanated distillery effluent on various morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters of Vicia fabae after two step biological treatment. Presented in 26th annual session of the academy of environmental biology (pp. 40–41).Google Scholar
  57. Sangeeta, Y., & Chandra, R. (2011). Heavy metals accumulation and ecophysiological effect on Typha angustifolia L. and Cyperus esculentus L. growing in distillery and tannery effluent polluted natural wetland site, Unnao, India. Environment and Earth Science, 62, 1235–1243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sangeeta, Y., & Chandra, R. (2012). Biodegradation of organic compounds of molasses melanoidin (MM) from biomethanated distillery spentwash (BMDS) during the decolourisation by a potential bacterial consortium. Biodegradation, 23(4), 609–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sangeeta, Y., & Chandra, R. (2013). Effect of pH on melanoidin extraction from post methanated distillery effluent (PMDE) and its decolorization by potential bacterial consortium. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 4(10), 1492–1496.Google Scholar
  60. Sangeeta, Y., Chandra, R., & Vibhuti, R. (2011). Characterization of potential MnP producing bacteria and its metabolic products during decolourisation of synthetic melanoidins due to biostimulatory effect of d-xylose at stationary phase. Process Biochemistry, 46, 1774–1784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Shen, S. C., Tseng, K. C., & Wu, J. S. B. (2007). An analysis of Maillard reaction products in ethanolic glucose-glycine solution. Food Chemistry, 102, 281–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Silvan, J. M., Lagemaat, J. V. D., Olano, A., et al. (2006). Analysis and biological properties of amino acid derivates formed by Maillard reaction in foods. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 41, 1543–1551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Singh, N. K., Pandey, G. C., Rai, U. N., et al. (2005). Metal accumulation and ecophysiological effects of distillery effluent on Potamogeton pectinatus L. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 74, 857–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sirianuntapiboon, S., Phothilangka, P., & Ohmomo, S. (2004). Decolourisation of molasses wastewater by a strain no. BP 103 of acetogenic bacteria. Bioresource Technology, 92, 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Subramani, A., Saravanan, S., Tamizhiniyan, P., et al. (1997). Influence of heavy metals on germination and early seedling growth of Vigna mungo L. Pollution Research, 16(1), 29–31.Google Scholar
  66. TEDX. (2011). The Endocrine Disruption Exchange, Inc. (TEDX), a 501(c)(3) organization, is based in Paonia, Colorado, and is incorporated as a business under the laws of that state.Google Scholar
  67. Tressl, R., & Wondrak, G. T. (1998). New melanoidin like Maillard polymer from 2-deoxypentoses. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46, 104–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Trivedy, R. K., & Nakate, S. S. (2000). Treatment of diluted distillery waste by constructed wetlands. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, 20, 749–753.Google Scholar
  69. Valderrama, L. T., Del Campo, C. M., Rodriguez, C. M., et al. (2002). Treatment of recalcitrant wastewater from ethanol and citric acid using the microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the macrophyte Lemna minuscule. Water Research, 36, 4185–4192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental MicrobiologyBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University)LucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations