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Natural Sensitizers and Their Applications in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

  • A. K. Pandey
  • Muhammad Shakeel Ahmad
  • Nasrudin Abd Rahim
  • V. V. Tyagi
  • R. Saidur
Chapter

Abstract

Many organic, inorganic and natural dye sensitizers have been trailed in the past in an attempt to reduce the cost, improve the performance and make the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) technology more environment-friendly. Ruthenium-based complexes are by far the most efficient dye sensitizers and have been commercially used in DSSC technology and achieved approximately 12–14% conversion efficiency. But the problems associated with ruthenium complexes are high cost and toxicity which drive the researchers to identify new metal-free and environment-friendly dye sensitizers such as organic and natural sensitizers. In this regard, natural dye sensitizers due to their low-cost extraction and environment-friendly nature are becoming a new area of research in the field of DSSC technology. These dye sensitizers are naturally occurring dye pigments, such as chlorophyll, betanins, carotenoids, anthocyanins and tannins extracted from flowers, leaves, stems and roots of plants using water, acetone and/or alcohols. At present, the efficiency of natural dye sensitizers is quite low compared to ruthenium-based dye due to selective light absorption. Recently, highest recorded efficiency of 2% has been reported using cocktail of natural dyes extracted from flowers. Attempts have been made to improve the performance of natural dye sensitizers by making cocktails and/or by using a variety of solvents for the extraction of dye molecules.

Keywords

Charge transfer DSSC Interface contact Natural sensitizers Pigments 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors thank the technical and financial assistance of UM Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Centre (UMPEDAC) and the Higher Institution Centre of Excellence (HICoE) Program Research Grant, UMPEDAC – 2016 (MOHE HICOE – UMPEDAC).

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. K. Pandey
    • 1
  • Muhammad Shakeel Ahmad
    • 2
  • Nasrudin Abd Rahim
    • 2
    • 3
  • V. V. Tyagi
    • 4
  • R. Saidur
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Research Centre for Nano-Materials and Energy Technology (RCNMET), School of Science and TechnologySunway UniversityPetaling JayaMalaysia
  2. 2.UM Power Energy Dedicated Advanced Center (UMPEDAC), Level 4University of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Renewable Energy Research GroupKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.School of Energy ManagmentShri Mata Vaishno Devi UniversityKatraIndia
  5. 5.Research Centre for Nano-Materials and Energy Technology (RCNMET), School of Science and TechnologySunway UniversitySubang JayaMalaysia
  6. 6.Department of EngineeringLancaster UniversityLancasterUK

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