Advertisement

Efficiency of Constructed Wetland Microcosms (CWMs) for the Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Using Aquatic Macrophytes

  • Saroj Kumar
  • Venkatesh Dutta
Chapter

Abstract

Constructed wetland microcosms (CWMs) are engineered wastewater treatment systems that are designed to treat wastewater from small communities, involving aquatic plants, a variety of substrate materials, soils and their associated microbial fauna. CWMs are considered as promising ecological technology that requires low or no energy input, low operational cost and provides more benefits and better alternative to conventional wastewater treatment systems. In CWMs dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and temperature are controlled to achieve the desirable treatment efficiency. Several other components such as plant, substrate, water depth, hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) are also critical to establishing viable CWMs for the better performance. The literature on CWMs suggests excellent nutrient removal performances which are achieved with low and stable effluent concentrations. Further, the choice of appropriate macrophyte species having high uptake of pollutants and high pollutant tolerance and choice of substrate materials are critical for treatment performance. CWMs can be differentiated based on existing native vegetation type (such as floating leaved macrophytes, free-floating macrophytes, emergent macrophytes and submerged macrophytes, in which emergent macrophytes are common) and, hydrology (surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs), subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSFCWs) and hybrid systems). The focus of this paper is to review the state of the art in improving the overall efficiency of CWMs for wastewater treatment. The paper documents both the design and operation of CWMs which are critically dependent on environmental, operational and hydraulic factors. It further outlines key challenges and future prospects for their wider replication.

Keywords

Constructed wetland microcosms Hydraulic loading rates Hydraulic retention time Macrophytes Treatment efficiency 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors are grateful to the Department of Environmental Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (a Central University), Lucknow, India, for their continuous support throughout this study. Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) from University Grants Commission, New Delhi to the first author is greatly acknowledged.  

References

  1. Abou-Elela, S. I., Elekhnawy, M. A., Khalil, M. T., & Hellal, M. S. (2017). Factors affecting the performance of horizontal flow constructed treatment wetland vegetated with Cyperus papyrus for municipal wastewater treatment. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 19(11), 1023–1028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adrados, B., Sánchez, O., Arias, C. A., Becares, E., Garrido, L., Mas, J., Brix, H., & Morató, J. (2014). Microbial communities from different types of natural wastewater treatment systems: Vertical and horizontal flow constructed wetlands and biofilters. Water Research, 55, 304–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akratos, C. S., Papaspyros, J. N., & Tsihrintzis, V. A. (2009). Total nitrogen and ammonia removal prediction in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: use of artificial neural networks and development of a design equation. Bioresource Technology, 100, 586–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ann, Y., Reddy, K. R., & Delfino, J. J. (1999). Influence of chemicals amendments on phosphorus immobilization in soils from a constructed wetland. Ecological Engineering, 14, 157–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ávila, C., Salas, J. J., Martín, I., Aragón, C., & García, J. (2013). Integrated treatment of combined sewer wastewater and storm water in a hybrid constructed wetland system in southern Spain and its further reuse. Ecological Engineering, 50, 13–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ávila, C., Matamoros, V., Reyes-Contreras, C., Piña, B., Casado, M., Mita, L., Rivetti, C., Barata, C., García, J., & Bayona, J. M. (2014). Attenuation of emerging organic contaminants in a hybrid constructed wetland system under different hydraulic loading rates and their associated toxicological effects in wastewater. The Science of the Total Environment, 470, 1272–1280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Babatunde, A. O., Zhao, Y. Q., & Zhao, X. H. (2010). Alum sludge-based constructed wetland system for enhanced removal of P and OM from wastewater: Concept, design and performance analysis. Bioresource Technology, 101(16), 6576–6579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Badhe, N., Saha, S., Biswas, R., & Nandy, T. (2014). Role of algal biofilm in improving the performance of free surface, up-flow constructed wetland. Bioresource Technology, 169, 596–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barca, C., Meyer, D., Liira, M., Drissen, P., Comeau, Y., Andrès, Y., & Chazarenc, F. (2014). Steel slag filters to upgrade phosphorus removal in small wastewater treatment plants: Removal mechanisms and performance. Ecological Engineering, 68, 214–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bohórquez, E., Paredes, D., & Arias, C. A. (2017). Vertical flow-constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment under tropical conditions: Effect of different design and operational parameters. Environmental Technology, 38, 199–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bouwman, L., Goldewijk, K. K., Van Der Hoek, K. W., Beusen, A. H., Van Vuuren, D. P., Willems, J., Rufino, M. C., & Stehfest, E. (2013). Exploring global changes in nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in agriculture induced by livestock production over the 1900–2050 periods. In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Vol. 110, pp. 20882–20887).Google Scholar
  12. Bruch, I., Fritsche, J., Bänninger, D., Alewell, U., Sendelov, M., Hürlimann, H., Hasselbach, R., & Alewell, C. (2011). Improving the treatment efficiency of constructed wetlands with zeolite-containing filter sands. Bioresource Technology, 102, 937–941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Butterworth, E., Richards, A., Jones, M., Mansi, G., Ranieri, E., Dotro, G., & Jefferson, B. (2016). Performance of four full-scale artificially aerated horizontal flow constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment. Water, 8, 365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Button, M., Nivala, J., Weber, K. P., Aubron, T., & Müller, R. A. (2015). Microbial community metabolic function in subsurface flow constructed wetlands of different designs. Ecological Engineering, 80, 162–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Calheiros, C. S., Rangel, A. O., & Castro, P. M. (2008). Evaluation of different substrates to support the growth of Typha latifolia in constructed wetlands treating tannery wastewater over long-term operation. Bioresource Technology, 99, 6866–6877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Calheiros, C. S., Rangel, A. O., & Castro, P. M. (2009). Treatment of industrial wastewater with two-stage constructed wetlands planted with Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis. Bioresource Technology, 100, 3205–3213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen, Y., Wen, Y., Zhou, Q., & Vymazal, J. (2014). Effects of plant biomass on nitrogen transformation in subsurface-batch constructed wetlands: A stable isotope and mass balance assessment. Water Research, 63, 158–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chong, H. L. H., Chia, P. S., & Ahmad, M. N. (2013). The adsorption of heavy metal by Bornean oil palm shell and its potential application as constructed wetland media. Bioresource Technology, 130, 181–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cooper, P. F., Job, G. D., Green, M. B., & Shutes, R. B. E. (1997). Reed beds and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. European Water Pollution Control, 6, 49.Google Scholar
  20. Cui, L., Ouyang, Y., Lou, Q., Yang, F., Chen, Y., Zhu, W., & Luo, S. (2010). Removal of nutrients from wastewater with Canna indica L. Under different vertical-flow constructed wetland conditions. Ecological Engineering, 36, 1083–1088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dong, X., & Reddy, G. B. (2010). Soil bacterial communities in constructed wetlands treated with swine wastewater using PCR-DGGE technique. Bioresource Technology, 101, 1175–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Drizo, A. F. C. A., Frost, C. A., Smith, K. A., & Grace, J. (1997). Phosphate and ammonium removal by constructed wetlands with horizontal subsurface flow, using shale as a substrate. Water Science and Technology, 35, 95–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dzakpasu, M., Scholz, M., McCarthy, V., & Jordan, S. N. (2015). Assessment of long-term phosphorus retention in an integrated constructed wetland treating domestic wastewater. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22, 305–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Elfanssi, S., Ouazzani, N., Latrach, L., Hejjaj, A., & Mandi, L. (2017). Phytoremediation of domestic wastewater using a hybrid constructed wetlands in mountainous rural area. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 20(1), 75–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Elsaesser, D., Blankenberg, A. G. B., Geist, A., Mæhlum, T., & Schulz, R. (2011). Assessing the influence of vegetation on reduction of pesticide concentration in experimental surface flow constructed wetlands: Application of the toxic units approach. Ecological Engineering, 37, 955–962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fan, J., Wang, W., Zhang, B., Guo, Y., Ngo, H. H., Guo, W., Zhang, J., & Wu, H. (2013). Nitrogen removal in intermittently aerated vertical flow constructed wetlands: impact of influent COD/N ratios. Bioresource Technology, 143, 461–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fan, J., Zhang, J., Guo, W., Liang, S., & Wu, H. (2016). Enhanced long-term organics and nitrogen removal and associated microbial community in intermittently aerated subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Bioresource Technology, 214, 871–875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Faulwetter, J. L., Gagnon, V., Sundberg, C., Chazarenc, F., Burr, M. D., Brisson, J., Camper, A. K., & Stein, O. R. (2009). Microbial processes influencing performance of treatment wetlands: A review. Ecological Engineering, 35, 987–1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Foladori, P., Ruaben, J., & Ortigara, A. R. (2013). Recirculation or artificial aeration in vertical flow constructed wetlands: A comparative study for treating high load wastewater. Bioresource Technology, 149, 398–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fountoulakis, M. S., Sabathianakis, G., Kritsotakis, I., Kabourakis, E. M., & Manios, T. (2017). Halophytes as vertical-flow constructed wetland vegetation for domestic wastewater treatment. The Science of the Total Environment, 583, 432–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Garcia, J., Rousseau, D. P., Morato, J., Lesage, E. L. S., Matamoros, V., & Bayona, J. M. (2010). Contaminant removal processes in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands: A review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 40, 561–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ge, Y., Wang, X., Zheng, Y., Dzakpasu, M., Zhao, Y., & Xiong, J. (2015). Functions of slags and gravels as substrates in large-scale demonstration constructed wetland systems for polluted river water treatment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22, 12982–12991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Geng, Y., Han, W., Yu, C., Jiang, Q., Wu, J., Chang, J., & Ge, Y. (2017). Effect of plant diversity on phosphorus removal in hydroponic microcosms simulating floating constructed wetlands. Ecological Engineering, 107, 110–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Giaramida, L., Manage, P. M., Edwards, C., Singh, B. K., & Lawton, L. A. (2013). Bacterial communities’ response to microcystins exposure and nutrient availability: Linking degradation capacity to community structure. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 84, 111–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Guo, C., Cui, Y., Dong, B., Luo, Y., Liu, F., Zhao, S., & Wu, H. (2017). Test study of the optimal design for hydraulic performance and treatment performance of free water surface flow constructed wetland. Bioresource Technology, 238, 461–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Han, W., Chang, J., Fan, X., Du, Y., Chang, S. X., Zhang, C., & Ge, Y. (2016). Plant species diversity impacts nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide emissions as much as carbon addition in constructed wetland microcosms. Ecological Engineering, 93, 144–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Haynes, R. J. (2015). Use of industrial wastes as media in constructed wetlands and filter beds—prospects for removal of phosphate and metals from wastewater streams. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 45, 1041–1103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Headley, T., Nivala, J., Kassa, K., Olsson, L., Wallace, S., Brix, H., van Afferden, M., & Müller, R. (2013). Escherichia coli removal and internal dynamics in subsurface flow eco-technologies: Effects of design and plants. Ecological Engineering, 61, 564–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Iasur-Kruh, L., Hadar, Y., Milstein, D., Gasith, A., & Minz, D. (2010). Microbial population and activity in wetland microcosms constructed for improving treated municipal wastewater. Microbial Ecology, 59, 700–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Istenic, D., Bodík, I., & Bulc, T. (2015). Status of decentralised wastewater treatment systems and barriers for implementation of nature-based systems in central and eastern Europe. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22, 12879–12884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jiang, Y., Sun, Y., Pan, J., Qi, S., Chen, Q., & Tong, D. (2017). Nitrogen removal and N2O emission in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with/without intermittent aeration under different organic loading rates. Bioresource Technology, 244, 8–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kadlec, R. H. (2009). Comparison of free water and horizontal subsurface flow treatment wetlands. Ecological Engineering, 35, 159–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kadlec, R. H., & Wallace, S. (2008). Treatment wetlands. Boca Raton: CRC Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Khan, S., Ahmad, I., Shah, M. T., Rehman, S., & Khaliq, A. (2009). Use of constructed wetland for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Journal of Environmental Management, 90, 3451–3457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kumari, M., & Tripathi, B. D. (2014). Effect of aeration and mixed culture of Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia natans on removal of wastewater pollutants. Ecological Engineering, 62, 48–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ladu, J. L. C., Loboka, M. K., & Lukaw, Y. S. (2012). Integrated constructed wetland for nitrogen elimination from domestic sewage: The case study of Soba rural area in Khartoum South, Sudan. Natural Science, 10, 30–36.Google Scholar
  47. Li, L., Li, Y., Biswas, D. K., Nian, Y., & Jiang, G. (2008). Potential of constructed wetlands in treating the eutrophic water: evidence from Taihu Lake of China. Bioresource Technology, 99, 1656–1663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Li, C. J., Wan, M. H., Dong, Y., Men, Z. Y., Lin, Y., Wu, D. Y., & Kong, H. N. (2011). Treating surface water with low nutrients concentration by mixed substrates constructed wetlands. Journal of Environment Science and Health Part A, 46, 771–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Li, F., Lu, L., Zheng, X., Ngo, H. H., Liang, S., Guo, W., & Zhang, X. (2014). Enhanced nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands: effects of dissolved oxygen and step-feeding. Bioresource Technology, 169, 395–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Li, M., Wu, H., Zhang, J., Ngo, H. H., Guo, W., & Kong, Q. (2017). Nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide emission in surface flow constructed wetlands for treating sewage treatment plant effluent: Effect of C/N ratios. Bioresource Technology, 240, 157–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Liu, R., Zhao, Y., Doherty, L., Hu, Y., & Hao, X. (2015). A review of incorporation of constructed wetland with other treatment processes. Chemical Engineering Journal, 279, 220–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lv, T., Zhang, Y., Carvalho, P. N., Zhang, L., Button, M., Arias, C. A., Weber, K. P., & Brix, H. (2017). Microbial community metabolic function in constructed wetland mesocosms treating the pesticides imazalil and tebuconazole. Ecological Engineering, 98, 378–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Machado, A. I., Beretta, M., Fragoso, R., & Duarte, E. (2017). Overview of the state of the art of constructed wetlands for decentralized wastewater management in Brazil. Journal of Environment Management, 187, 560–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Maine, M. A., Hadad, H. R., Sánchez, G. C., Di Luca, G. A., Mufarrege, M. M., Caffaratti, S. E., & Pedro, M. C. (2017). Long-term performance of two free-water surface wetlands for metallurgical effluent treatment. Ecological Engineering, 98, 372–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Melián, J. H., Rodríguez, A. M., Arana, J., Díaz, O. G., & Henríquez, J. G. (2010). Hybrid constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment and reuse in the Canary Islands. Ecological Engineering, 36, 891–899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Meng, P., Pei, H., Hu, W., Shao, Y., & Li, Z. (2014). How to increase microbial degradation in constructed wetlands: Influencing factors and improvement measures. Bioresource Technology, 157, 316–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mexicano, L., Glenn, E. P., Hinojosa-Huerta, O., Garcia-Hernandez, J., Flessa, K., & Hinojosa-Corona, A. (2013). Long-term sustainability of the hydrology and vegetation of Cienega de Santa Clara, an anthropogenic wetland created by disposal of agricultural drain water in the delta of the Colorado River, Mexico. Ecological Engineering, 59, 111–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mthembu, M. S., Odinga, C. A., Swalaha, F. M., & Bux, F. (2013). Constructed wetlands: A future alternative wastewater treatment technology. African Journal of Biotechnology, 12(29), 4542–4553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mulling, B. T., van den Boomen, R. M., van der Geest, H. G., Kappelhof, J. W., & Admiraal, W. (2013). Suspended particle and pathogen peak discharge buffering by a surface-flow constructed wetland. Water Research, 47, 1091–1100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Naylor, S., Brisson, J., Labelle, M. A., Drizo, A., & Comeau, Y. (2003). Treatment of freshwater fish farm effluent using constructed wetlands: The role of plants and substrate. Water Science and Technology, 48, 215–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Okochi, N. C., & McMartin, D. W. (2011). Laboratory investigations of storm water remediation via slag: Effects of metals on phosphorus removal. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 187, 250–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ong, S. A., Uchiyama, K., Inadama, D., Ishida, Y., & Yamagiwa, K. (2010). Performance evaluation of laboratory scale up-flow constructed wetlands with different designs and emergent plants. Bioresource Technology, 101, 7239–7244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Park, J. H., Wang, J. J., Kim, S. H., Cho, J. S., Kang, S. W., Delaune, R. D., & Seo, D. C. (2017). Phosphate removal in constructed wetland with rapid cooled basic oxygen furnace slag. Chemical Engineering Journal, 327, 713–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Penuelas, J., Poulter, B., Sardans, J., Ciais, P., Van Der Velde, M., Bopp, L., Boucher, O., Godderis, Y., Hinsinger, P., Llusia, J., & Nardin, E. (2013). Human-induced nitrogen–phosphorus imbalances alter natural and managed ecosystems across the globe. Nature Communications, 4, 2934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rai, U. N., Tripathi, R. D., Singh, N. K., Upadhyay, A. K., Dwivedi, S., Shukla, M. K., Mallick, S., Singh, S. N., & Nautiyal, C. S. (2013). Constructed wetland as an eco-technological tool for pollution treatment for conservation of Ganga River. Bioresource Technology, 148, 535–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ren, Y., Zhang, B., Liu, Z., & Wang, J. (2007). Optimization of four kinds of constructed wetlands substrate combination treating domestic sewage. Wuhan University Journal of Natural Science, 12, 1136–1142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Saeed, T., & Sun, G. (2012). A review on nitrogen and organics removal mechanisms in subsurface flow constructed wetlands: Dependency on environmental parameters, operating conditions and supporting media. Journal of Environmental Management, 112, 429–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Saeed, T., & Sun, G. (2013). A lab-scale study of constructed wetlands with sugarcane bagasse and sand media for the treatment of textile wastewater. Bioresource Technology, 128, 438–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Seo, D. C., Cho, J. S., Lee, H. J., & Heo, J. S. (2005). Phosphorus retention capacity of filter media for estimating the longevity of constructed wetland. Water Research, 39, 2445–2457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shao, Y., Pei, H., Hu, W., Chanway, C. P., Meng, P., Ji, Y., & Li, Z. (2014). Bioaugmentation in lab scale constructed wetland microcosms for treating polluted river water and domestic wastewater in northern China. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 95, 151–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sim, C. H., Eikaas, H. S., Chan, S. H., & Gan, J. (2011). Nutrient removal and plant biomass of 5 wetland plant species in Singapore. Water Practice Technology, 6, 2011053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Singh, S., Haberl, R., Moog, O., Shrestha, R. R., Shrestha, P., & Shrestha, R. (2009). Performance of an anaerobic baffled reactor and hybrid constructed wetland treating high-strength wastewater in Nepal—A model for DEWATS. Ecological Engineering, 35, 654–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Stefanakis, A. I., & Tsihrintzis, V. A. (2012). Effects of loading, resting period, temperature, porous media, vegetation and aeration on performance of pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands. Chemical Engineering Journal, 181, 416–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Stefanakis, A., Akratos, C. S., & Tsihrintzis, V. A. (2014). Vertical flow constructed wetlands: Eco-engineering systems for wastewater and sludge treatment. NewnesGoogle Scholar
  75. Sudarsan, J. S., Roy, R. L., Baskar, G., Deeptha, V. T., & Nithiyanantham, S. (2015). Domestic wastewater treatment performance using constructed wetland. Sustainable Water Resources Management, 1, 89–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tao, W., & Wang, J. (2009). Effect of vegetation, limestone and aeration on nitritation, anammox and denitrification in wetland treatment systems. Ecological Engineering, 35, 836–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Truu, J., Nurk, K., Juhanson, J., & Mander, Ü. (2005). Variation of microbiological parameters within planted soil filter for domestic wastewater treatment. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, 40, 1191–1200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Truu, M., Juhanson, J., & Truu, J. (2009). Microbial biomass, activity and community composition in constructed wetlands. The Science of the Total Environment, 407, 3958–3971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tsihrintzis, V. A. (2017). The use of vertical flow constructed wetlands in wastewater treatment. Water Resources Management, 1–26.Google Scholar
  80. Vymazal, J. (2005). Horizontal sub-surface flow and hybrid constructed wetlands systems for wastewater treatment. Ecological Engineering, 25, 478–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Vymazal, J. (2011). Plants used in constructed wetlands with horizontal subsurface flow. Hydrobiologia, 10, 738–749.Google Scholar
  82. Vymazal, J. (2013a). Emergent plants used in free water surface constructed wetlands: a review. Ecological Engineering, 61, 582–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Vymazal, J. (2013b). The use of hybrid constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment with special attention to nitrogen removal: a review of a recent development. Water Research, 47, 4795–4811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Vymazal, J., & Březinová, T. (2015). The use of constructed wetlands for removal of pesticides from agricultural runoff and drainage: A review. Environ Int, 75, 11–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vymazal, J., & Kröpfelová, L. (2009). Removal of organics in constructed wetlands with horizontal sub-surface flow: A review of the field experience. The Science of the Total Environment, 407, 3911–3922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wallace, S., & Kadlec, R. (2005). BTEX degradation in a cold-climate wetland system. Water Science Technology, 51, 165–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wang, C. Y., & Sample, D. J. (2013). Assessing floating treatment wetlands nutrient removal performance through a first order kinetics model and statistical inference. Ecological Engineering, 61, 292–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wang, G., Wang, Y., & Gao, Z. (2010). Use of steel slag as a granular material: Volume expansion prediction and usability criteria. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 184, 555–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wang, Y. C., Ko, C. H., Chang, F. C., Chen, P. Y., Liu, T. F., Sheu, Y. S., Shih, T. L., & Teng, C. J. (2011). Bioenergy production potential for aboveground biomass from a subtropical constructed wetland. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35, 50–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wang, H., Chen, Z. X., Zhang, X. Y., Zhu, S. X., Ge, Y., Chang, S. X., Zhang, C. B., Huang, C. C., & Chang, J. (2013). Plant species richness increased belowground plant biomass and substrate nitrogen removal in a constructed wetland. Clean Soil Air Water, 41, 657–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wang, W., Ding, Y., Wang, Y., Song, X., Ambrose, R. F., Ullman, J. L., Winfrey, B. K., Wang, J., & Gong, J. (2016). Treatment of rich ammonia nitrogen wastewater with polyvinyl alcohol immobilized nitrifier biofortified constructed wetlands. Ecological Engineering, 94, 7–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wang, X. J., Zhang, J. Y., Gao, J., Shahid, S., Xia, X. H., Geng, Z., & Tang, L. (2017). The new concept of water resources management in China: ensuring water security in changing environment. Environment Development Sustainability, 1–13.Google Scholar
  93. Wojciechowska, E., Gajewska, M., & Ostojski, A. (2017). Reliability of nitrogen removal processes in multi-stage treatment wetlands receiving high-strength wastewater. Ecological Engineering, 98, 365–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wu, S., Kuschk, P., Brix, H., Vymazal, J., & Dong, R. (2014). Development of constructed wetlands in performance intensifications for wastewater treatment: A nitrogen and organic matter targeted review. Water Research, 57, 40–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wu, H., Zhang, J., Ngo, H. H., Guo, W., Hu, Z., Liang, S., Fan, J., & Liu, H. (2015a). A review on the sustainability of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: Design and operation. Bioresource Technology, 175, 594–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wu, H., Fan, J., Zhang, J., Ngo, H. H., Guo, W., Hu, Z., & Liang, S. (2015b). Decentralized domestic wastewater treatment using intermittently aerated vertical flow constructed wetlands: Impact of influent strengths. Bioresource Technology, 176, 163–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wu, H., Fan, J., Zhang, J., Ngo, H. H., GuoW, L. S., Hu, Z., & Liu, H. (2015c). Strategies and techniques to enhance constructed wetland performance for sustainable wastewater treatment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22, 14637–14650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wu, H., Lin, L., Zhang, J., Guo, W., Liang, S., & Liu, H. (2016). Purification ability and carbon dioxide flux from surface flow constructed wetlands treating sewage treatment plant effluent. Bioresource Technology, 219, 768–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Xu, D., Xu, J., Wu, J., & Muhammad, A. (2006). Studies on the phosphorus sorption capacity of substrates used in constructed wetland systems. Chemosphere, 63, 344–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Yamochi, S., Tanaka, T., Otani, Y., & Endo, T. (2017). Effects of light, temperature and ground water level on the CO2 flux of the sediment in the high water temperature seasons at the artificial north salt marsh of Osaka Nanko bird sanctuary, Japan. Ecological Engineering, 98, 330–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Yan, Y., & Xu, J. (2014). Improving winter performance of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in northern China: A review. Wetlands, 34, 243–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zhang, Z., Rengel, Z., & Meney, K. (2007). Nutrient removal from simulated wastewater using Canna indica and Schoenoplectus validus in mono-and mixed-culture in wetland microcosms. Water Air Soil Pollution, 183, 95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zhang, C. B., Wang, J., Liu, W. L., Zhu, S. X., Ge, H. L., Chang, S. X., Chang, J., & Ge, Y. (2010). Effects of plant diversity on microbial biomass and community metabolic profiles in a full-scale constructed wetland. Ecological Engineering, 36, 62–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zhang, T., Xu, D., He, F., Zhang, Y., & Wu, Z. (2012). Application of constructed wetland for water pollution control in China during 1990-2010. Ecological Engineering, 47, 189–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Zhang, D. Q., Jinadasa, K. B. S. N., Gersberg, R. M., Liu, Y., Ng, W. J., & Tan, S. K. (2014). Application of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in developing countries–a review of recent developments (2000–2013). Journal of Environmental Management, 141, 116–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zhang, D. Q., Jinadasa, K. B. S. N., Gersberg, R. M., Liu, Y., Tan, S. K., & Ng, W. J. (2015). Application of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in tropical and subtropical regions (2000–2013). Journal of Environmental Sciences, 30, 30–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Zhang, Y., Carvalho, P. N., Lv, T., Arias, C., Brix, H., & Chen, Z. (2016). Microbial density and diversity in constructed wetland systems and the relation to pollutant removal efficiency. Water Science & Technology, 73, 679–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Zhao, Y. J., Liu, B., Zhang, W. G., Ouyang, Y., & An, S. Q. (2010). Performance of pilot-scale vertical-flow constructed wetlands in responding to variation in influent C/N ratios of simulated urban sewage. Bioresource Technology, 101, 1693–1700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zhao, Y. J., Hui, Z., Chao, X., Nie, E., Li, H. J., He, J., & Zheng, Z. (2011). Efficiency of two-stage combinations of subsurface vertical down-flow and up-flow constructed wetland systems for treating variation in influent C/N ratios of domestic wastewater. Ecological Engineering, 37, 1546–1554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zhao, Y., Zhang, Y., Ge, Z., Hu, C., & Zhang, H. (2014). Effects of influent C/N ratios on wastewater nutrient removal and simultaneous greenhouse gas emission from the combinations of vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands and earthworm eco-filters for treating synthetic wastewater. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 16, 567–575.Google Scholar
  111. Zhao, Z., Chang, J., Han, W., Wang, M., Ma, D., Du, Y., Qu, Z., Chang, S. X., & Ge, Y. (2016a). Effects of plant diversity and sand particle size on methane emission and nitrogen removal in microcosms of constructed wetlands. Ecological Engineering, 95, 390–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zhao, X., Yang, J., Bai, S., Ma, F., & Wang, L. (2016b). Microbial population dynamics in response to bioaugmentation in a constructed wetland system under 10.C. Bioresource Technology, 205, 166–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Zheng, Y., Wang, X. C., Ge, Y., Dzakpasu, M., Zhao, Y., & Xiong, J. (2015). Effects of annual harvesting on plants growth and nutrients removal in surface flow constructed wetlands in north-western China. Ecological Engineering, 83, 268–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Zheng, Y., Wang, X., Dzakpasu, M., Zhao, Y., Ngo, H. H., Guo, W., Ge, Y., & Xiong, J. (2016). Effects of interspecific competition on the growth of macrophytes and nutrient removal in constructed wetlands: A comparative assessment of free water surface and horizontal subsurface flow systems. Bioresource Technology, 207, 134–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zhu, H., Yan, B., Xu, Y., Guan, J., & Liu, S. (2014). Removal of nitrogen and COD in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands under different influent C/N ratios. Ecological Engineering, 63, 58–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science, School of Environmental SciencesBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar UniversityLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations