Gastritis-Infection-Cancer Sequence of Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Gastric Cancer
Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC) is a representative EBV-infected epithelial neoplasm, which is now included as one of the four subtypes of The Cancer Genome Atlas molecular classification of gastric cancer. In this review, we portray a gastritis-infection-cancer sequence of EBVaGC. This virus-associated type of gastric cancer demonstrates clonal growth of EBV-infected epithelial cells within the mucosa of atrophic gastritis. Its core molecular abnormality is the EBV-specific hyper-epigenotype of CpG island promoter methylation, which induces silencing of tumor suppressor genes. This is due to the infection-induced disruption of the balance between DNA methylation and DNA demethylation activities. Abnormalities in the host cell genome, including phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit α (PIK3CA), AT-rich interaction domain 1A (ARID1A), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), are associated with the development and progression of EBVaGC. Furthermore, posttranscriptional modulation affects the transformation processes of EBV-infected cells, such as epithelial mesenchymal transition and anti-apoptosis, via cellular and viral microRNAs (miRNAs). Once established, cancer cells of EBVaGC remodel their microenvironment, at least partly, via the delivery of exosomes containing cellular and viral miRNAs. After exosomes are incorporated, these molecules change the functions of stromal cells, tuning the microenvironment for EBVaGC. During this series of events, EBV hijacks and uses cellular machineries, such as DNA methylation and the miRNA delivery system. This portrait of gastritis-infection-cancer sequences highlights the survival strategies of EBV in the stomach epithelial cells and may be useful for the integration of therapeutic modalities against EBV-driven gastric cancer.
KeywordsGastric cancer EBVaGC EBER-ISH TCGA CpG methylation PIK3CA ARID1A PD-L1 microRNA
This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (26253021 to M.F.) and from the Core Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology program from the Japan Science and Technology Agency to A.K. and M.F.
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