Detoxification of Crude Oil

  • Aysar T. Jarullah
  • Iqbal M. Mujtaba
  • Alastair S. Wood
Chapter
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

Petroleum contributes significantly to our lives and will continue to do so for many years to come. Petroleum derivatives supply more than 50% of the world’s total supply of energy (Jarullah Kinetic modelling simulation and optimal operation of trickle bed reactor for hydrotreating of crude oil. University of Bradford, UK, 2011 [20]). Traditionally, crude oil goes through fractional distillation to produce different grades of fuel such as gasoline, kerosene, and diesel oil providing fuel for automobiles, tractors, trucks, aircraft, and ships. Catalytic hydrotreating (HDT) is used to detoxify the oil fractions produced by fractional distillation in the petroleum refining industries which involve removal of pollutants such as sulfur, nitrogen, metals, and asphaltene in trickle-bed reactors. Recently, Jarullah and co-workers proposed detoxification of whole crude oil a priori before the crude oil enters further processing in a fractionating column. This chapter highlights this new technology.

Keywords

Crude oil Hydrotreatment Trickle-bed reactor Pilot plant Modeling Simulation 

References

  1. 1.
    Abbas AS (1999) Low sulfur feedstock from basrah reduced crude oil for coke production. MSc thesis, University of BaghdadGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Al-Humaidan FS (2004) Modelling hydrocracking of atmospheric residue by discrete and continuous lumping. MSc thesis, Kuwait UniversityGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ali LH, Abdul-Karim E (1986) The oil, origin. Iraq, AlMosul University, Composition and TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ancheyta J, Speight JG (2007) Hydroprocessing of heavy oils and residua. CRC Press, USAGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andari MK, Behbehani H, Stanislaus A (1996) Sulfur compound type distribution in Naphtha and gas oil fractions of Kuwaiti crude. Fuel Sci Technol Int 14:939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Areff HA (2001) The effect of operating conditions on vacuum gas oil hydrotreating on sulfur and aromatics content. MSc thesis, University of TikritGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ashaibani AS (2002) Modelling, simulation and optimisation of refinery processes with energy conservation. PhD thesis, University of Bradford, UKGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ashaibani AS, Mujtaba IM (2007) Minimisation of fuel energy wastage by improved heat exchanger network design-an industrial case study. Asia-Pac J Chem Eng 2:575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bartholdy J, Cooper BH (1993) Metal and coke deactivation of resid hydroprocessing catalysts. ACS Symposium on Resid Upgrading Denver, USA, p 386Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Benito AM, Callejas MA, Martínez MT (1997) Kinetics of asphaltene hydroconversion: 2. Catalytic hydrocracking of a coal residue. Fuel 76:907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Callejas MA, Martinez MT (2000) Hydroprocessing of a maya residue. 1. Intrinsic kinetics of asphaltene removal reactions. Energy Fuel 14:1304Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chung SYK (1982) Thermal hydroprocessing of heavy gas oils. MSc thesis, University of AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fogler HS (1999) Elements of chemical reaction engineering, 2nd edn. Prentice-Hall, New JerseyMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gajardo P, Pazos JM, Salazar GA (1982) Comments on the HDS, HDM and HDN activities of commercial catalysts in the hydrotreating of heavy crude oils. Appl Catal 2:303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gary JH, Handwerk GE (1994) Petroleum refining: technology and economics, 3rd edn. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Girgis MJ, Gates BC (1991) Reactivities, reaction networks, and kinetics in high-pressure catalytic hydroprocessing. Ind Eng Chem Res 30:2021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gully AL, Ballard WP (1963) Advances in petroleum chemistry and refining. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hobson GD (1984) Modern petroleum technology. 5th edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hsu ChS, Robinson PR (2006) Practical advances in petroleum processing. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jarullah AT (2011) Kinetic modelling simulation and optimal operation of trickle bed reactor for hydrotreating of crude oil. PhD Thesis. University of Bradford, UKGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jarullah AT, Awad NA, Mujtaba IM (2017) Optimal design and operation of an industrial fluidized catalytic cracking reactor. Fuel 206:657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jarullah AT, Mujtaba IM, Wood AS (2011) Kinetic parameter estimation and simulation of trickle-bed reactor for hydrodesulfurization of crude oil. Chem Eng Sci 66:859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jarullah AT, Mujtaba IM, Wood AS (2011) Kinetic model development and simulation of simultaneous hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodemetallization of crude oil in trickle bed reactor. Fuel 90:2165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jarullah AT, Mujtaba IM, Wood AS (2011) Improvement of the middle distillate yields during crude oil hydrotreatment in a trickle-bed reactor. Energy Fuels 25:773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jarullah AT, Mujtaba IM, Wood AS (2011) Whole crude oil hydrotreating from small-scale laboratory pilot plant to large-scale trickle-bed reactor: analysis of operational issues through modeling. Energy Fuels 26:629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jarullah AT, Mujtaba IM, Wood AS (2012) Improving fuel quality by whole crude oil hydrotreating: a kinetic model for hydrodeasphaltenization in a trickle bed reactor. Appl Energy 94:182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jarullah AT, Mujtaba IM, Wood AS (2012a) Economic analysis of an industrial refining unit involving hydrotreatment of whole crude oil in trickle bed reactor using gPROMS. In: Bogle IDL, Fairweather M (eds) Computer aided chemical engineering- 30, vol 30. Elsevier, pp 652–656Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jimenez F, Nunez M, Kafarov V (2005) Study and modelling of simultaneous hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodearomitization on vacuum gas oil hydrotreatment. Comput Aided Chem Eng 20:619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jimenez F, Ojeda K, Sanchez E, Kafarov V, Filho RM (2007) Modeling of trickle bed reactor for hydrotreating of vacuum gas oils: effect of kinetic type on reactor modelling. Comput Aided Chem Eng 24:515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    John YM, Patel R, Mujtaba IM (2017) Maximization of gasoline in an industrial fluidized catalytic cracking unit. Energy Fuels 31:5645–5661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Khalfalla HA (2009) Modelling and optimization of oxidative desulfurization process for model sulfur compounds and heavy gas oil. PhD Thesis. University of BradfordGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Khalfalla HA, Mujtaba IM, El-Garni M, El-Akrami H (2007) Experimentation, modelling and optimisation of oxidative desulphurization of heavy gas oil: energy consumption and recovery issues. Chem Eng Trans 11:53–58Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kim LK, Choi KS (1987) Hydrodesulfurization over hydrotreating catalysts. Int chem Eng 27:340Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Leprince P (2001) Conversion processes. Institute Francais du Petrole, ParisGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Leyva C, Rana MS, Trejo F, Ancheyta J (2007) On the use of acid-base-supported catalysts for hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum. Ind Eng Chem Res 46:7448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mahmood Sh, Abdul-Karim R, Hussein EM (1990) Technology of oil and gas. Baghdad, Oil Training InstituteGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nawaf AT, Jarullah AT, Gheni SA, Mujtaba IM (2015) Development of kinetic and process models for the oxidative desulfurization of light fuel, using experiments and the parameter estimation technique. Ind Eng Chem Res 54:12503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nawaf AT, Jarullah AT, Gheni SA, Mujtaba IM (2015) Optimal design of a trickle bed reactor for light fuel oxidative desulfurization based on experiments and modeling. Energy Fuels 29:3366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nawaf AT, Jarullah AT, Gheni SA, Mujtaba IM (2015) Improvement of fuel quality by oxidative desulfurization: design of synthetic catalyst for the process. Fuel Process Technol 138:337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pereira CJ, Cheng JW, Suarez WC (1990) Metal deposition in hydrotreating catalyst. Ind Eng Chem Process Des Dev 29:520Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Scherzer J, Gruia AJ (1996) Hydrocracking science and technology. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Speight JG (2000) The desulfurization of heavy oils and residua, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ting PD, Hirasaki GJ, Chapman WG (2003) Modeling of asphaltene phase behavior with the SAFT equation of state. Pet Sci Technol 21:647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Topsoe H, Clausen BS, Massoth FE (1996) Hydrotreating catalysis. Germany, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, Science and TechnologyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Turaga UT (2000) MCM-41-supported cobalt-molybdenum catalysts for deep hydrodesulfurization of diesel and jet fuel feedstocks. PhD Thesis. Pennsylvania State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wauquier JP (1995) Crude oil: petroleum products. Process Flowsheets, Paris, Editions TechnipGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aysar T. Jarullah
    • 1
  • Iqbal M. Mujtaba
    • 2
  • Alastair S. Wood
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringTikrit UniversityTikritIraq
  2. 2.School of EngineeringUniversity of BradfordBradfordUK

Personalised recommendations