Current Advances in Bio-Oil Upgrading: A Brief Discussion

Chapter
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

Conventional fuels being on their verge of depletion and regularly increasing air pollution demand a robust need of a promising energy resource to meet the present energy demand and diminish the pollution concerns. The renewable energy resources, for instance, wind energy, tidal energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, biomass are presently being employed widely across the globe. However, out of all renewable energy resources, only biomass ensures the sustainability of carbon element for existing transportation vehicles. There have been enormous amount of research regarding the biomass and its conversion into bio-oil, but the suitable and economical bio-oil upgradation technology is still challenging. The raw bio-oil derived from the thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass comprises of a huge number of oxy-compounds which vitiate its quality as biofuel; therefore, the research regarding the upgradation of raw bio-oil is emerging as one of the fastest and exciting research field amongst researchers across the globe. In this chapter, a comprehensive review of types of biomass, available methods of conversion, bio-oil chemistry, and the bio-oil upgradation is carried out. In addition, single component-wise upgradation of raw bio-oil components, e.g. glucose, fructose, acetic acid, furfural, glycerol, over various catalysts is reviewed. Along with the experimental works, this article also aims for the review of several contemporary theoretical works which are carried out for the investigations of the reaction mechanisms behind the conversion of various bio-oil components. Currently, the density functional theory (DFT) is widely applied as a computational tool for the accurate investigation of reaction mechanisms of various bio-oil components; therefore, numerous studies based on the DFT methods are also included.

Keywords

Biomass Bio-oil Sustainable energy Catalytic upgrading Kinetics Density functional theory 

Abbreviations

Glu

Glucose

Fru

Fructose

LA

Levulinic Acid

HMF

5-hydroxymethylfurfural

Fur

Furfural

FAL

Furfuryl Alcohol

THFAL

Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol

THF

Tetrahydrofuran

DHF

Dihydrofuran

MF

2-Methylfuran

Xyl

Xylose

Sor

Sorbitol

AA

Acetic Acid

Acde

Acetaldehyde

Gly

Glycerol

PD

1,2-propanediol

HP

1-hydroxypropan-2-one

PA

Propanoic Acid

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia

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