Experiential Marketing as a Moderating Effect on Exhibitor Performance at International Tourism Trade Shows

  • Zauyani Zainal Mohamed AliasEmail author
  • Nor’ain Othman
Conference paper


International tourism trade shows are an essential instrument for the marketing of goods and services. Trade shows establish direct relationships between supply and demand and provide the opportunity for specific marketing activities. A growing body of academic and practitioner trade show literature has highlighted the relationship between trade show marketing strategies and trade show performance. However, the effect of exhibitor experience on the international trade show marketing strategy and performance relationship has not been addressed in the literature. This paper, therefore, fills the research gap by examining the moderating role of exhibitors’ trust, commitment, and satisfaction during their trading experience at selected trade shows. The purpose of this study is (1) to identify the experiential marketing concepts at international tourism trade shows, (2) to determine the dimensions of exhibitors’ trading experience at international tourism trade shows, (3) to develop a conceptual framework regarding the relationship between the exhibitors’ trading experience and trade show performance, and (4) to propose a new perspective on exhibitors’ performance at international trade shows from an experimental point of view. A theoretical model of the effect that exhibitors’ experience has on trade show performance was developed, drawing on research regarding exhibitor behavior, experiential marketing, government support, and trade show performance. A questionnaire consistent with a positivist methodology was developed and tested, data was collected from 100 respondents, and structural equation modeling was used to test the theoretical and other competing models. This study provides an initial understanding of the nature of exhibitors’ experiences at international trade shows. By reporting exhibitor responses, this study also contributes to research on trade show performance.


International tourism trade show Experiential marketing Government support and trade show performance 


  1. Aurier, P., & N’Goala, G. (2010). The differing and mediating roles of trust and relationship commitment in service relationship maintenance and development. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 38(3), 303–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bello, D. C. (1992). Industrial buyer behavior at trade shows: Implications for selling effectiveness. Journal of Business Research, 25(1), 59–80.Google Scholar
  3. Bello, D. C., & Barksdale, H. C. (1986a). Exporting at industrial trade shows. Industrial Marketing Management, 15(3), 197–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bello, D. C., & Barksdale, H. C. (1986b). Exporting industrial products at American trade shows. In Advances in business marketing (pp. 1–25). Stamford, CT: JAI Press. Google Scholar
  5. Bonoma, T. V. (1983, January–February). Get more out of your trade shows. Harvard Business Review, 6, 75–83.Google Scholar
  6. Breiter, D., & Milman, A. (2007). Predicting exhibitor levels of satisfaction in a large convention center. Event Management, 10, 133–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cater, B., & Zabkar, V. (2009). Antecedents and consequences of commitment in marketing research services: The client’s perspective. Industrial Marketing Management, 38(7), 785–797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cavanaugh, S. (1976). Setting objectives and evaluating the effectiveness of trade show exhibits. Journal of Marketing, 40(4), 100–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cleverdon, R. (2001). Introduction: Fair trade in tourism—applications and experience. International Journal of Tourism Research, 3(5), 347–349.Google Scholar
  10. Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  11. Creswell, J. W., Plano C. V., Gutmann, M., & Hanson, W. (2003). Advance mixed methods designs, In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of mixed method research in the social and behavioural sciences. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  12. Dekimpe, M. G., Francois, P., Gopalakrishna, S., Lilien, G. L., & Van den Bulte, C. (1997). Generalizing about trade show effectiveness: A cross-national comparison. Journal of Marketing, 61(4), 55–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Devellis, R. F. (2012). Scale development: Theory and applications (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Fayos-Sola, E., Marin, A., & Meffert, C. (1994). The strategic role of tourism trade fairs in the new age of tourism. Tourism Management, 15(1), 9–16.Google Scholar
  15. Gabrielli, V., & Balboni, B. (2010). SME practice towards integrated marketing communication. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 28(3), 275–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goodsell, S. (1996). The role of exhibitions in the European marketing mix. Paper presented at Kawalek Software Marketing Perspectives, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  17. Gopalakrishna, S., & Lilien, G. L. (1995). A three-stage model of industrial trade show performance. Marketing Science, 14(1), 22–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gopalakrishna, S., Williams J.D. (1992). Planning and performance assessment of industrial trade shows: An exploratory study. International Journal of Research Marketing, 9, 207–224.Google Scholar
  19. Gopalakrishna, S., Lilien, G. L., Williams, J. D., & Sequeira, I. K. (1995). Do trade shows pay off? Journal of Marketing, 59(July), 75–83.Google Scholar
  20. Grayson, K., Johnson, D., & Chen, D. R. (2008). Is firm trust essential in a trusted environment? How trust in the business context influences customer. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(2), 241–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Greene, J., & Caracelli, V. (1997). Defining and describing the paradigm issue in mixed-method evaluation. New Directions for Program Evaluation, 74, 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Greipl, E., & Singer, E. (1980). Auslandsmessen als Instrument der Außenhandelsförde- rung (Schriftenreihe des IFO-Instituts für werbewissenschaftliche Gesellschaft). Berlin, Germany: Duncker und Humblot.Google Scholar
  23. Han, H., & Verma, H. (2014). Why attend tradeshows? A comparison of exhibitor and attendee’s preferences. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 55, 239–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hansen, K. (1996). The dual motives of participants at international trade fairs. International Marketing Review, 13(2), 39–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hansen, K. (2004). Measuring performance at trade shows—Scale development and validation. Journal of Business Research, 57(1), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hutcheson, G., & Sofroniou, N. (1999). The multi variate social scientist. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jacobson, D. (1990, March). Marketers say they’ll boost spending. Business Marketing, 75, 31–32.Google Scholar
  28. Jin, X., & Weber, K. (2013). Developing and testing a model of exhibition brand preference: The exhibitors’ perspective. Tourism Management, 38, 94–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Johnson, B. R., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Mixed method: A research paradigm whose time has come. Educational Researcher, 33(7), 14–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Johnson, D., & Grayson, K. (2005). Cognitive and affective trust in service relationships. Journal of Business Research, 58(4), 500–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jones, T., Taylor, S. F., & Bansal, H. S. (2008). Commitment to a friend, a service provider, or a service company: Are they distinctions worth making? Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 7(3–4), 85–98.Google Scholar
  32. Jung, M. (2005). Determinants of exhibition service quality as perceived by attendees. Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 7(3–4), 85–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39(1), 31–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kantsperger, R., & Kunz, W. H. (2010). Consumer trust in service companies: A multiple mediating analysis. Managing Service Quality, 20(1), 4–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Keaveney, S. M. (1995). Customer switching behavior in service industries: An exploratory study. Journal of Marketing, 59(2), 71–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Keller, K. L. (2003). Building measuring and managing brand equity (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  37. Kemp, R. A., & Smith, R. E. (1998). Consumer processing of product trial and the influence of prior advertising: A structural modeling approach. Journal of Marketing Research, 35(3), 87–94.Google Scholar
  38. Kerin, R. A., & Cron, W. L. (1987). Assessing trade show functions and performance: An exploratory study. Journal of Marketing, 51(3), 87–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kijewski, V., Yoon, E., & Young, G. (1993). How exhibitors select trade shows. Industrial Marketing Management, 22(4), 287–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kirchgeorg, M., Springer, C., & Kastner, E. (2010). Objectives for successfully participating in trade shows. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 25(1), 63–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kotler, P. (2003). Marketing insight from A to Z. 80 concepts a manager needs to know. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  42. Lacey, R. (2007). Relationship drivers’ of customer commitment. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 15(4), 315–327.Google Scholar
  43. Lee, C. H., & Kim, S. Y. (2008). Differential effects of determinants on multidimensions of trade show performance: By three stages of pre-show, at-show, and post-show activities. Industrial Marketing Management, 37(7), 784–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lee, J., & Back, K. (2009). Examining the effect of self-image congruence, relative to education and networking, on conference evaluation through its competing models and moderating effect. Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 10, 256–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Li, L. Y. (2007). Marketing resources and performance of exhibitor firms in trade shows: A contingent resource perspective. Industrial Marketing Management, 36, 360–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Li, L. Y. (2008). The effects of firm resources on trade show performance: How do trade show marketing processes matter? Journal of Business Industrial Marketing, 23(1), 35–47.Google Scholar
  47. Lin, Y., Jiang, J., & Kerstetter, D. (2015). A three-component framework for trade show performance evaluation. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 42(6), 855–879. Scholar
  48. Ling-Yee, L. (2006). Relationship learning at trade shows: Its antecedents and consequences. Industrial Marketing Management, 35, 166–177.Google Scholar
  49. Maghnati, F., Choon Ling, K., & Nasermoadeli, A. (2012). Exploring the relationship between experiential marketing and experiential value in the smartphone industry. International Business Research, 5(11), 169–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Makens, J. C., & Gee, C. Y. (1987). Building sales success with travel missions. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 28(3), 67–73.Google Scholar
  51. Manuera, J., & Ruiz, S. (1999). Trade fairs as services: A look at visitors’ objectives in Spain. Journal of Business Research, 44(1), 17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Motwani, J., Rice, G., & Mahmoud, E. (1992). Promoting exports through international trade shows: A dual perspective. Review of Business, 13(4), 38–42.Google Scholar
  53. Munro, S., Lewin, S., Swart, T., & Volmink, J. (2007). A review of health behaviour theories: How useful are these for developing interventions to promote long-term medication adherence for TB and HIV/AIDS? BMC Public Health, 7, Art no. 104.Google Scholar
  54. Nisbet, E. K. L., & Gick, M. L. (2008). Can health psychology help the planet? Applying theory and models of health behaviour to environmental actions. Canadian Psychology, 49, 296–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric theory. Hillsdale: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  56. Pantano, E. (2011). Cultural factors affecting consumer behavior: A new perception model. EuroMed Journal of Business, 6(1), 117–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Parasuraman, A. (1981, October). The relative importance of industrial promotion tools. Industrial Marketing Management, 10, 277–281.Google Scholar
  58. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1988). SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 12–40.Google Scholar
  59. Patterson, P. G., & Spreng, R. A. (1997). Modelling the relationship between perceived value, satisfaction and repurchase intentions in a business to business, services context: An empirical examination. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 8(5), 414–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pfeiffer, R., Burgemeister, H., Hibbert, E., & Spence, M. (1997). A comparative survey of trade fairs in U.K. and Germany in three industry sectors. Proceedings, European Marketing Academy Conference, Warwick, 1934–1943.Google Scholar
  61. Pitta, A. D., Weisgal, M., & Lynagh, P. (2006). Integrating exhibit marketing. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 23(3), 156–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rosson, P. J., & Seringhaus, F. H. R. (1995). Visitor and exhibitor interaction at industrial trade fairs. Journal of Business Research, 32(1), 81–90.Google Scholar
  63. Ryu, K., Han, H., & Kim, T. (2008). The relationships among overall quick-casual restaurant image, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27(3), 459–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sánchez, J., Callarisa, L., Rodríguez, R. M., & Moliner, M. A. (2006). Perceived value of the purchase of a tourism product. Tourism Management, 27(3), 394–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Santos, J., & Boote, J. (2003). A theoretical exploration and model of consumer expectations, post purchase affective states and affective behaviour. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 3(2), 142–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Schmitt, B. (2010/2011). Experience marketing: Concepts, frameworks and consumer insights. Foundations and Trends in Marketing, 5(2), 55–112.Google Scholar
  67. Schmitt, B. (2012). The consumer psychology of brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology (Elsevier Science), 22(1), 7–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Seringhaus, F. H. R., & Rosson, P. J. (1998). Management and performance of international trade fair exhibitors: Government stands vs independent stands. International Marketing Review, 15(5), 398–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Seringhaus, F. H. R., & Rosson, P. J. (2001). Firm experience and international trade fairs. Journal Marketing Management, 17, 877–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Severt, D., Wang, Y., Chen, P. J., & Breiter, D. (2007). Examining the motivation, perceived performance, and behavioral intentions of convention attendees: Evidence from a regional conference. Tourism Management, 28(2), 399–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sharma, N., & Patterson, P. G. (1999). The impact of communication effectiveness and service quality on relationship commitment in consumer, professional services. Journal of Services Marketing, 13(2), 151–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Shipley, D., & Wong, K. S. (1993). Exhibiting strategy and implementation. International Journal of Advertising, 12(2), 117–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shi, W., & Smith, P. M. (2014/2015). Effects of international trade show marketing strategies on trade show performance: Does experience matter? Wood and Fiber Science, 47(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
  74. Smith, T. M., Gopalakrishna, S., & Smith, P. M. (2004). The complementary effect of trade shows on personal selling. International Journal Research Marketing, 21(1), 61–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Smith, T. M., Hama, K., & Smith, P. M. (2003). The effect of successful trade show attendance on future show interest: Exploring Japanese attendee perspectives of domestic and offshore international events. Journal of Business Industrial Marketing, 18(4/5), 403–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Swandby, R. K., Cox, J. M., & Sequeira, I. K. (1989). Trade shows poised for 1990s growth. Business Marketing, 46–52.Google Scholar
  77. Tafesse, W., Korneliussen T. (2010). The dimensionality of trade show performance in an emerging market. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 6(1), 38–49.Google Scholar
  78. Tafesse, W., & Korneliussen, T. (2011). The dimensionality of trade show performance in an emerging market. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 6(1), 38–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tanner, J. F. (1995). Curriculum guide to trade show marketing. Waco, TX: Center for Exhibition Industry Research, Baylor University.Google Scholar
  80. Tanner, J. F. (2002). Leveling the playing field: Factors influencing trade show success for small companies. Industrial Marketing Management, 31(3), 229–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tanner, J. F., Jr., & Chonko, L. B. (1995). Trade show objectives, management, and staffing practices. Industrial Marketing Management, 24, 257–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tashakkori, A., & Teddlie, C. (Eds.). (2003). Handbook of mixed-methods in social & behavioral research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  83. Telfer, D. J. (1999). Travel technology ’98 conference and trade show: Moving the travel trade into the next generation. The International Journal of Tourism Research, 1(1), 59–61.Google Scholar
  84. Tsiotsou, R. (2006). The role of perceived product quality and overall satisfaction on purchase intentions. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 30(2), 207–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tynan, C., & McKechnie, S. (2010). Experience marketing: A review and reassessment. Journal of Marketing Management, 25(5–6), 501–517.Google Scholar
  86. Webb, T. L., Sniehotta, F. F., & Michie, S. (2010). Using theories of behaviour change to inform interventions for addictive behaviours. Addiction, 105, 1879–1892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: A means-end model and synthesis of evidence. Journal of Marketing, 52(3), 2–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zeithaml, V. A., Berry, L. L., & Parasuraman, A. (1996). The behavioral consequences of service quality. Journal of Marketing, 60(21), 31–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zauyani Zainal Mohamed Alias
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nor’ain Othman
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Hotel and Tourism ManagementUniversiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Puncak Alam CampusShah AlamMalaysia

Personalised recommendations