Top-Down Versus Bottom-Up Approaches in Heritage Tourism Management and Planning: An Analysis of Contrasting Models Based on Two Turkish Case Studies
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Bottom-up and top-down approaches in heritage tourism management and planning are assessed using two case studies from Turkey. This study first provides a brief background of heritage management concepts and practices in the Mediterranean Basin, with a focus on Turkey. To typify heritage tourism management processes within a bottom-up/top-down binary, the involved agents are classified according to their natures and hierarchical levels. Heritage tourism management in the Phrygian Valley is thus analysed as an example of a top-down approach, while that in ancient Lykia/Olympos is evaluated as a demonstration of a bottom-up approach in a rural destination setting. Data were gathered with semi-structured and structured interviews in the two case study areas and included primary data from previous works as well. According to the results, both bottom-up and top-down approaches demonstrate weaknesses and strong points. Operational dimensions of the two approaches are exemplified and discussed in detail.
KeywordsCultural heritage tourism planning Cultural heritage tourism management Bottom-up and Top-down approaches Phrygian Valley Olympos Turkey
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