Spinal Fractures

  • Hyun-Yoon Ko


A typical mechanism of mechanical injury that causes spinal fractures is the four loads of flexion, extension, rotation, and compression. A more complicated movement with combinations of the basic four external loads leads to fractures. These fractures and dislocations of the spine due to these external forces, along with damage to the blood vessels, spinal cord blood flow, and ligaments, lead to various clinical symptoms and consequences. As a result, secondary spinal cord damage is caused by concussion, contusion, laceration, and transection.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hyun-Yoon Ko
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation MedicineRehabilitation Hospital, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Pusan National University School of MedicineYangsanSouth Korea

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