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Spasticity and Contracture

  • Hyun-Yoon Ko
Chapter

Abstract

Spasticity, which indicates an abnormal stretch reflex behavior, is a disabling component of upper motor neuron lesion including spinal cord injury. The upper motor neuron system consists of all the pathways above the anterior horn cell, including the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord. Spasticity includes a wide range of abnormal motor behavior due to upper motor neuron lesion. This causes increased muscle tone, increased muscle reactivity, reduced precision of voluntary muscle control, and the emergence of involuntary motor output. All of these effects can show time-dependent differences in static versus dynamic conditions, flexor versus extensor movements, and many other permutations. Clinically, spasticity can be easily recognized, but can be difficult to quantify and treat. The pathophysiology of spasticity is complex and controversial. There are many subtle considerations in the management of spasticity, and sometimes the clinician has to negotiate with the patient when adjusting the spasticity.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hyun-Yoon Ko
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation MedicineRehabilitation Hospital, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Pusan National University School of MedicineYangsanSouth Korea

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