Heterotopic Ossification

  • Hyun-Yoon Ko


Heterotopic ossification is a biological process of new bone formation in nonosseous tissues, where bone is not normally found. Heterotopic ossification is observed in many conditions including spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, stroke, burns, ambulations, and even drug abuse. Patients with spinal cord injuries are predisposed to the formation of extraosseous bone formation or heterotopic ossification below the level of injury. Upper and lower extremities can be affected, but the most commonly affected joints are the hip. The most common location in patients with spinal cord injury is inferomedial or anteromedial which appears to be a role of adductor spasticity, followed by the knee, elbow, and shoulder, and rarely occurs in the small joints of the hand and foot.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hyun-Yoon Ko
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation MedicineRehabilitation Hospital, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Pusan National University School of MedicineYangsanSouth Korea

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