Electrolyte and Metabolic Disorder

  • Hyun-Yoon Ko


In patients with spinal cord injuries, various fluid and electrolyte, metabolic, and endocrine disorders occur. Changes in basal metabolism and body composition after the spinal cord injury often increase the risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Rapid bone loss increases the risk of fracture after spinal cord injury. Mechanical effects, fluid responses, and autonomic changes due to various conditions including prolonged recumbency, muscle paralysis, and neurogenic dysfunction can cause fluid migration and electrolyte imbalance in people with chronic diseases or disorders including patients with spinal cord injuries. Some patients may be asymptomatic but have symptoms such as chronic dependent edema, dehydration, orthostatic hypotension, and chronic renal failure. Hyponatremia, hypernatremia, metabolic acidosis, and metabolic alkalosis are clinically frequent.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hyun-Yoon Ko
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation MedicineRehabilitation Hospital, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Pusan National University School of MedicineYangsanSouth Korea

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