Preferred Coaching Behaviours Among Malaysian KARISMA 2015 Athletes

  • Tan Chee HianEmail author
  • Muhammad Aman Bin M. Maamor
  • Syed Mukhris Bin Syed Adnan
  • Jong Li Ling
Conference paper


Purpose: This study was to justify the preferred coaching behaviors of Malaysian youth athletes. Method: It was a descriptive and inferential research designed using the Leadership Scale of Sports (LSS, Chelladurai [Journal of sport Psychology, 6(1), 27–41, 1994, 2]) questionnaire to conduct and elaborate the related information with self-administration. The samples were purposively selected. The estimated population was about 2500 Malaysian youth athletes in KARISMA 2015 tournament. Referred to Baumgartner and Hensley [Conducting & Reading Research in Kineaiology, McGraw Hill, 2004,1], the appropriate samples size came to 342 samples. The adopted questionnaire (r = 0.89) consisted of two sections. Section A: Demographic data of samples which consisted of gender, type of sports, and past experience involvement and achievement in particular sports. Section B was questions perceived that preferred coaching behavior of selected samples. LSS was inclusive dimensions of training and instruction, autocratic, democratic, social support, and positive feedback of coaches’ behavior. Results: Descriptive statistic showed the highest coaching behavior preferred by overall Malaysian youth athletes was democratic behavior with a mean score of M = 4.43, SD = 0.29. Inferentially independent t-Test to compare preferred coaching behavior between gender showed less performed sport female youth preferred autocratic where else, higher performed youths from various sports preferred democratic coaches. ANOVA and Spearman Rho were used to compare the preferred coaching behavior between various sports. It was statistically shown that there was significant difference between sports and coaching behavioral precisely with ranking of overall Malaysian youth athletes preferred democratic coaching in training process. However, it showed that different sequence ranks were preferred between higher performed sports’ youth athletes and lower performed sports youth athletes with respect to democratic, social support, positive feedback and on the other hand, autocratic, social support, and positive feedback were preferred. Conclusion: Malaysian youth athletes preferred training and instruction with democratic of their coaches but lower performed sports youth athletes preferred autocratic rather than democratic comparatively and the rest were sequencing similar. Contribution: Results were in line with the past studies and contributed to the coaching science, the body of knowledge.


KARISMA tournament Malaysian youth athletes Training and instruction Autocratic Democratic Social support Positive feedback Higher and lower performed sport 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tan Chee Hian
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muhammad Aman Bin M. Maamor
    • 1
  • Syed Mukhris Bin Syed Adnan
    • 1
  • Jong Li Ling
    • 2
  1. 1.Universiti Teknologi MARASelangorMalaysia
  2. 2.Universiti Teknologi MARAShah Alam, SarawakMalaysia

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