Squash Backhand Stroke Analyses for Three Different Playing Levels in Malaysia

  • Diyana Zulaika Abdul GhaniEmail author
  • Zainal Abidin Zainuddin
  • Halijah Ibrahim
Conference paper


Our aim was to analyze backhand strokes performed among three different levels of playing in squash (professional elite, intermediate, and beginners). Thirty-five matches from three different tournaments, performed by 15 players divided equally for each group, were analyzed via hand notational analysis. Results indicated that the professional elite had recorded the greatest number of backhand shots [n = 2382 followed by the intermediate (n = 2027) and the beginners (n = 1017)]. Further analysis has shown that the frequencies were significantly differed between groups (F = 8.39, p ≤ 0.005). The notational analyses have identified the drive as the most shots performed (BHDV) (40.9% of 5426 shots). Only three types of shots were frequently performed by all three groups which are BHDV (2220 of 5426 shots), the backhand crosscourt drive (BHXCDV) (853 shots), and the drop (BHDP) (595 shots). In addition, three backhand shots have marked significant difference between groups, which are BHDV (F = 16.235, p ≤ 0.000), the backhand volley drive (BHVDV) (F = 14.902, p ≤ 0.001), and BHXCDV (F = 5.793, p ≤ 0.017). Even though different levels of playing execute different number of shots per game, it was evident that all three groups had performed same type of shots as their most frequently performed, and it was mainly at the back of the court (BHDV). These findings could give practical implication to assist coaches and players to enhance their playing strategy performance.


High-performance sport Backhand analyses Squash Professional elite 



This study was conducted using the Research University Grant (Q.J130000.7131.00J73) of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diyana Zulaika Abdul Ghani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zainal Abidin Zainuddin
    • 1
  • Halijah Ibrahim
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences and HumanitiesUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaJohor BahruMalaysia

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