Investment Arbitration Under Mega-Regional Free Trade Agreements: A 21st Century Model
Investment obligations and investor-State arbitration provisions normally have been negotiated under BITs; in recent years, however, and with increasing frequency, such provisions have been negotiated in the larger context of FTAs. For investment provisions, the movement from BITs to FTAs recently has taken an additional, significant step: the negotiation of such provisions in the even larger context of mega-regional FTAs. This shift in context—from BITs to FTAs, and now from FTAs to mega-regional FTAs—will significantly affect the content and operation of investment provisions. Indeed, investment arbitration under mega-regional FTAs likely will be distinctive in several important respects. This chapter addresses five distinctive characteristics of investment arbitration under mega-regional FTAs. With the conclusion of the TPP, and likely conclusion of an RCEP agreement, those five characteristics ultimately could be seen, more generally, as characteristics of 21st century investment arbitration.