Advertisement

Design and Scale-up of High-solid and Multi-phase Bioprocess

  • Hongzhang Chen
Chapter
Part of the Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technology book series (GCST)

Abstract

The rheological properties in high-solid and multi-phase system are different from that of ordinary fluids because of the high solid content. Thus, there is new requirement for solid-state reactor and large-scale solid materials conveyor devices. In this chapter, the rheological characteristics of high-solid enzymatic hydrolysis system were analyzed and the transfer and seepage laws in the porous solid medium were revealed. Agitation and intensification methods for the high-solid and multi-phase system were also studied. Based on the above, the high-solid and multi-phase reactor and corresponding large-scale conveyor devices were developed, and prospect for the engineering application and development direction of the high-solid and multi-phase bioprocess in the future were provided.

Keywords

Rheological characteristics Mass transfer and seepage Solid-state reactor Mixing and strengthening method Large-scale conveyor devices 

References

  1. 1.
    Modenbach AA, Nokes SE (2013) Enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass at high-solids loadings-a review. Biomass Bioenergy 56(38):526–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Um BH, Hanley TR (2008) A comparison of simple rheological parameters and simulation data for Zymomonasmobilis fermentation broths with high substrate loading in a 3-L bioreactor. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 145(1):29–38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Roche CM, Dibble CJ, Stickel JJ (2009) Laboratory-scale method for enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass at high-solids loadings. Biotechnol Biofuels 2(1):28CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dasari RK, Dunaway K, Berson RE (2008) A scraped surface bioreactor for enzymatic saccharification of pretreated corn stover slurries. Energy Fuels 23(1):492–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhang J, Chu DQ, Huang J et al (2010) Simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation at high corn stover solids loading in a helical stirring bioreactor. Biotechnol Bioeng 105(4):718–728PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Viamajala S, Mcmillan J, Schell D et al (2009) Rheology of corn stover slurries at high solids concentrations-Effects of saccharification and particle size. Bioresour Technol 100(2):925CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Knutsen JS, Liberatore MW (2010) Rheology modification and enzyme kinetics of high-solids cellulosic slurries: an economic analysis. Energy Fuels 24(12):6506–6512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Szijártó N, Horan E, Zhang JH et al (2011) Thermostableendoglucanases in the liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Biotechnol Biofuels 4(1):2CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang Y, Liu YY, Xu JL et al (2011) High solid and low enzyme loading based saccharification of agriculutural biomass. BioResources 7(1):0345–0353Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhao XB, Zhang LH, Liu DH (2012) Biomass recalcitrance. Part I: the chemical compositions and physical structures affecting the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Biofuel BioprodBior 6(4):465–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Modenbach AA, Nokes SE (2012) The use of high-solids loadings in biomass pretreatment-a review. Biotechnol Bioeng 109:1430–1442CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Koppram R, Tomás-Pejó E, Xiros C et al (2013) Lignocellulosic ethanol production at high-gravity: challenges and perspectives. Trend Biotechnol 32(1):46–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Roberts KM, Lavenson DM, Tozzi EJ et al (2011) The effects of water interactions in cellulose suspensions on mass transfer and saccharification efficiency at high solids loadings. Cellulose 18(3):759–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Felby C, Thygesen LG, Kristensen JB et al (2008) Cellulose–water interactions during enzymatic hydrolysis as studied by time domain NMR. Cellulose 15(5):703–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Selig MJ, Thygesen LG, Felby C (2014) Correlating the ability of lignocellulosic polymers to constrain water with the potential to inhibit cellulose saccharification. Biotechnol Biofuels 7(1):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Selig MJ, Hsieh CW, Thygesen LG et al (2012) Considering water availability and the effect of solute concentration on high solids saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass. Biotechnol Progr 28(6):1478–1490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hodge DB, Karim MN, Schell DJ et al (2008) Soluble and insoluble solids contributions to high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Bioresour Technol 99(18):8940–8948CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Berry SL, Roderick ML (2005) Plant–water relations and the fibre saturation point. New Phytol 168(1):25–37CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhang H, Thygesen LG, Mortensen K et al (2014) Structure and enzymatic accessibility of leaf and stem from wheat straw before and after hydrothermal pretreatment. Botechnol Biofuels 7(1):74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Elder T, Labbé N, Harper D et al (2006) Time domain-nuclear magnetic resonance study of chars from southern hardwoods. Biomass Bioenergy 30(10):855–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liu W, Fan AW, Huang XM (2006) Theory and application of heat and mass transfer in porous media. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Muralidhar K, Swarup J (2007) Theoretical study of inter phase heat and mass transfer in saturated porous media. Int J Eng Sci 35(2):171–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gu WC (2000) Seepage calculation principle and application. China Building Material Industry Publishing House, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang XD (2006) Basis of seepage fluid mechanics. Petroleum Industry Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kong XY (2010) Advanced fluid mechanics in porous media. University Science and Technology of China Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bear J (2013) Dynamics of fluids in porous media. Courier Corporation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chai CJ, Zhang GL (2000) Flow and heat transfer of chemical engineering fluid. Chemical Industry Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jia SY, Chai JC (2005) Chemical mass transfer and separation process[M]. Chemical Industry Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jørgensen H, Vibe-Pedersen J, Larsen J, Felby C (2007) Liquefaction of lignocellulose at high-solids concentrations. Biotechnol Bioeng 96(5):862–870CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wyman CE (2007) What is (and is not) vital to advancing cellulosic ethanol. Tends Biotechnol. 25(4):153–157Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Aris R (2012) Vectors, tensors and the basic equations of fluid mechanics. Dover Publictions Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Miller EE, Miller RD (1955) Theory of capillary flow: I. Practical implications. Soil SciSoc Am J 19(3):267–271Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhao LG, Chu GZ, Bao CS (2002) Non-equilibrium extrapolation method for velocity and pressure boundary conditions in the lattice Boltzmann method. Chinese Phys C 11(4):366 (in Chinese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Smith R (2005) Chemical process: design and integration. Wiley, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chen ZP, Zhang XW, Ling XH (2004) Handbook of stirring and mixing equipment design selection. Chemical Industry Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Towler GP, Sinnott RK (2012) Chemical engineering design: principles, practice and economics of plant and process design. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dautzenberg FM, Mukherjee M (2001) Process intensification using multifunctional reactors. Chem Eng Sci 56(2):251–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Reay D, Ramshaw C, Harvey A (2013) Process Intensification: Engineering for efficiency, sustainability and flexibility. Butterworth-Heinemann, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Stankiewicz AI, Moulijn JA (2000) Process intensification: transforming chemical engineering. Chem Eng Prog 96(1):22–34Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wang W, Zhuang XS, Yuan ZH et al (2012) High consistency enzymatic saccharification of sweet sorghum bagasse pretreated with liquid hot water. Bioresour Technol 108(2):252–257CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhang X, Qin WJ, Paice MG et al (2009) High consistency enzymatic hydrolysis of hardwood substrates. Bioresour Technol 100(23):5890–5897CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sun ZC, Chen HZ, Wang YH et al (2006) Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-treated straw using a ball shaker. J B Univ Chem Technol 33(6):26–30Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chen HZ, Li GH (2013) An industrial level system with non isothermal simultaneous solid state saccharification, fermentation and separation for ethanol production. Biochem Eng J 74:121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chen HZ, Liu ZH (2015) Steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment refining technology of plant biomass to bio-based products. Biotechnol J 10:866–885CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wu ZQ (2006) Solid state fermentation technology and applications. Chemical Industry Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Marcus RD, Leung LS, Klinzing GE et al (1993) Pneumatic conveying of solids: a theoretical and practical approach. Drying Technol 11(4):859–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Xu GR, Hu WF (2009) Fundamentals, equipment and applications of solid-state fermentation. Chemical Industry Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wen C, Wen T (2011) The design and innovation of air-cushion belt conveyor. Grain Distribution Technol 05:18–24 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Saravacos GD, Kostaropoulos AE (2002) Handbook of food processing equipment. Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin/HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Holloway MD, Nwaoha C, Onyewuenyi OA (2012) Process plant equipment: operation, control, and reliability. Wiley, New JerseyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Xie ZL (2001) Numerical simulation of pneumatic conveying. J B Univ Chem Technol 28(1):22–27Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Klinzing GE, Rizk F, Marcus R et al (2011) Pneumatic conveying of solids: a theoretical and practical approach. Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin/HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Chen HZ (2013) Modern Solid State Fermentation. Springer, NetherlandsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zhang CF, Bai HM (2014) Space docking mechanism technology of spacecraft. Sci Sin Tech 44:20–26 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tan J (2011) Development on the four degree manipulation of the material handling. Wuhan University of Technology Institute of Electrical and Mechanical Services, WuhanGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zhao ZM, Wang L, Chen HZ (2015) A novel steam explosion sterilization improving solid-state fermentation performance. Bioresource Technol 192:547–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Qi YZ, Wang SX (2007) Biological reaction kinetics and reactor. Chemical Industry Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Zhang SL (2001) Study on the fermentation processes at multi-levels in bioreactor and its application for special purposes—ptimization and scaling up of the fermentation process based on the parameter correlation method. Eng Sci 3(8):37–45Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Asenjo JA (1994) Bioreactor system design. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chen DY (2013) Some theoretical problems and applications of nonlinear dynamic analysis and control. Northwest Agriculture and Forestry UniversityGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Da MM, Muniz JB, Schuler A, Da MM (2004) Static magnetic fields enhancement of Saccharomyces cerevisaee than olic fermentation. Biotechnol Progr 20(1):393–396Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Moore RL (1979) Biological effects of magnetic fields: studies with microorganisms Cana. J Microbiol 25(10):1145–1151Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ramon C, Martin JT, Powell MR (1987) Low-level, magnetic-field-induced growth modification of Bacillus subtili. Bioelectromagnetics 8(3):275CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Haug RT (1993) The practical handbook of compost engineering. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sanromán A, Roca E, Núñez MJ et al (1994) A pulsing device for packed-bed bioreactors: II. Application to alcoholic fermentation. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 10(2):75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Roca E, Sanromán A, Núñez MJ et al (1994) A pulsing device for packed-bed bioreactors: I Hydrodynamic behavior. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 10(2):61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Perez VH, Reyes AF, Justo OR et al (2007) Bioreactor coupled with electromagnetic field generator: Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Ethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnol Progr 23(5):1091–1094Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Process EngineeringChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations