KPFM mode as shown in Fig. 51.1 generates images based on the electric potential of the sample surface. Applying an AC voltage to a conductive cantilever and detecting the resulting electric force makes it possible to observe the surface profile and, at the same time, the surface potential distribution.
Surface potential AC bias voltage Surface potential calibration
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Nonnenmacher, M., O’Boyle, M.P., Wickramasinghe, H.K.: Kelvin probe force microscopy. Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2921 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar