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Placental Development and Nutritional Environment

  • Kosuke Taniguchi
  • Tomoko Kawai
  • Kenichiro Hata
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1012)

Abstract

The placenta is considered to have developed recently in mammalian evolution. While the fundamental function of the placenta, i.e., providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus and receiving waste products, is the same in all mammals, the morphology of the placenta varies substantially in a species-dependent manner. Therefore, considerable interest exists in understanding placental development and function in mammals from a molecular biological viewpoint. Numerous recent studies have shown that various environmental factors before and during pregnancy, including nutrition, affect placental formation and function and that alterations in placental formation and function can influence the developing fetus and the offspring after birth. To date, the relationship between nutrition and the placenta has been investigated in several species, various model organisms, and humans. In this chapter, we discuss the current knowledge of the placenta and the epigenome and then highlight the effects of nutrition during pregnancy on the placenta and the fetus and on the offspring after birth.

Keywords

Epigenome Placenta DNA methylation Genomic imprinting Retrotransposons 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kosuke Taniguchi
    • 1
  • Tomoko Kawai
    • 1
  • Kenichiro Hata
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Maternal-Fetal BiologyNational Research Institute for Child Health and DevelopmentTokyoJapan

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