Role of Personal Care Products and Phototoxicity

  • Syed Faiz Mujtaba
  • Ajeet K. Srivastav
  • Shikha Agnihotry
  • Sandeep Negi
  • Jaya Upadhayay
  • Ratan S. RayEmail author


Cosmetics are chemical substances or products that are used to change the look or fragrance of the human beings. Mostly cosmetics are applied usually on the face and hair area. Sun acts as a natural source of different wavelengths that also contains ultraviolet (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C) and many other radiations. Many ingredients present in cosmetics show absorption maxima (λmax) under visible light followed by ultraviolet radiation. Photosensitization of cosmetics results in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), i.e., 1O2 and O2, by the two different photosensitization mechanisms (type-I and type-II). The photosensitization of cosmetic products finally leads to ROS production and photoproduct formation. Oxidative stress mediated damage to biomolecules including DNA, formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), etc. Various adverse effects of cosmetics are being reported in the research articles that relate to genotoxicity, mutagenicity, photosensitization, skin irritation, acute toxicity, percutaneous absorption, and eye irritation. Endogenous and exogenous antioxidants suppress cosmetic toxicity as well as cellular defense machinery (Keap1/Nrf2 and MAPK) pathways. Phototoxicity of cosmetics may lead to skin and ocular damage as well as immune suppression. India is among the tropical countries, where most of the activities are done by common man in the bright sunlight like agriculture, commerce, sports, etc. Thus, information is needed regarding the cosmetic photoproducts and its phototoxicity for total human safety.


Cosmetics Photosensitization Photoproducts UV-R 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Syed Faiz Mujtaba
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ajeet K. Srivastav
    • 1
    • 3
  • Shikha Agnihotry
    • 4
  • Sandeep Negi
    • 1
    • 3
  • Jaya Upadhayay
    • 3
  • Ratan S. Ray
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Photobiology DivisionC.S.I.R-Indian Institute of Toxicology ResearchLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of Zoology, Faculty of ScienceShia P.G. College, University of LucknowLucknowIndia
  3. 3.Babu Banarasi Das UniversityLucknowIndia
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical-InformaticsSanjay Gandhi Post Graduate InstituteLucknowIndia

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