Advertisement

Cardiac Mechanical Signals

  • Ramon Casanella
  • Farzad Khosrow-khavar
  • Samuel Schmidt
  • John Zanetti
  • Kouhyar TavakolianEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Series in BioEngineering book series (SERBIOENG)

Abstract

Over the past century, extensive research has been conducted on interpretation of vibration signals created by the heart and their potential use in noninvasive cardiology. Today, new microelectronics and signal processing technologies have provided unprecedented opportunities to reintroduce some of these techniques as useful cardiovascular assessment tools. The purpose of this book chapter is to review these recent efforts and to study these signals in two categories of local pulses and whole-body signals. The present challenges and opportunities in the field are also investigated.

References

  1. 1.
    Starr A, Noordergraaf I (1967) Ballistocardiography in cardiovascular research. Lippincott Company, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lejeune L, Caiani EG, Prisk GK, Migeotte P (2014) Evaluation of ensemble averaging methods in 3D ballistocardiography. In: IEEE EMBC, pp 5176–5179Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ngai B, Tavakolian K, Akhbardeh A, Blaber AP, Kaminska B, Noordergraaf A (2009) Comparative analysis of seismocardiogram waves with the ultra-low frequency ballistocardiogram. In: IEEE EMBC, vol 2009, pp 2851–2854Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Weissler AM, Harris WS, Schoenfeld CD (1968) Systolic time intervals in heart failure in man. Circulation 37(2):149–159Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rijuven (2017). http://www.rijuven.com/ (Online)
  6. 6.
    3M (2017). http://www.littmann.ca/ (Online)
  7. 7.
    Inovise. http://www.inovise.com/ (Online)
  8. 8.
    Eko (2017). https://ekodevices.com/ (Online)
  9. 9.
    Acarix. http://www.acarix.com/ (Online)
  10. 10.
    Dressler W (1937) Pulsations of the wall of the chest. Arch Intern Med 225–239Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Droitcour A (2006) Non-contact measurment of heart and respiration rates with a single-chip microwave doppler radar. Stanford UniversityGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schweizer W, Bertrab RV, Reist P (1965) Kinetocardiography in coronary artery disease. Br Heart J 27(2):263–268Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Eddleman E (1974) Kinetocardiography. In: Noninvasive cardiology. Gtune & Stratton, New York, pp 227–273Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Manolas J (2016) Assessment of diastolic behavior of patients with hypertension vs. other myocardial diseases using an external pressure transducer and short handgrip exercise. J. Hypertens. Manag. 2(1):1–3Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Baevskii RM, Egorov AD, Kazarian LA (1964) The method of seismocardiography. Kardiologiia 18:87–89Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Salerno D, Zanetti J (1991) Seismocardiography for monitoring changes in left ventricular function during ischemia. Chest 100(4):991–993Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zanetti JM, Tavakolian K (2013) Seismocardiography : past, present and future. In: IEEE engineering in medicine and biology society conference, pp 7004–7007Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Castiglioni P, Faini A, Parati G, Di Rienzo M (2007) Wearable seismocardiography. In: IEEE EMBC conference, pp 3954–3957Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tavakolian K (2010) Characterization and analysis of seismocardiogram for estimation of hemodynamic parameters. PhD dissGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tadi MJ, Lehtonen E, Saraste A, Vasankari T, Koivisto T (2016) Gyrocardiography : a new non-invasive approach in the study of mechanical motions of the heart. Concept, method and initial observations. In: IEEE EMBC conference, pp 2034–2037Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gordon JW (1877) Certain molar movements of the human body produced by the circulation of the blood. J Anat Physiol 11:533–536Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Starr I, Rawson AJ, Schroeder HA, Joseph NR (1939) Studies on the estimation of cardiac ouptut in man, and of abnormalities in cardiac function, from the heart’s recoil and the blood’s impacts; the ballistocardiogram. Am J Physiol 127(1):1–28Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Noordergraaf A (1956) Physical basis of ballistocardiography. Utrech UniversityGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Inan O et al (2015) Ballistocardiography and seismocardiography: a review of recent advances. IEEE J Biomed Heal Inform 19(4):1414–1427Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Junnila S, Akhbardeh A, Värri A, Koivistoinen T (2005) An EMFi-film sensor based ballistocardiographic chair: performance and cycle extraction method. In: IEEE workshop on signal processing systems (SiPS) design and implementation, vol 2005, pp 373–377Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Luna-Lozano PS, Alvarado-Serrano C (2012) Time and amplitude relationships of the ballistocardiogram in vertical and horizontal direction. In: CCE 2012—2012 9th international conference on electrical engineering, computer science automatic control, no SeptemberGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chee Y, Han J, Youn J, Park K (2005) Air mattress sensor system with balancing tube for unconstrained measurement of respiration and heart beat movements. Physiol Meas 26(4):413–422Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    González-Landaeta R, Casas O, Pallàs-Areny R (2008) Heart rate detection from an electronic weighing scale. Physiol Meas 29(8):979–988Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Inan OT, Etemadi M, Wiard RM, Giovangrandi L, Kovacs GT (2009) Robust ballistocardiogram acquisition for home monitoring. Physiol Meas 30(2): 169–185Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Starr I, Wood FC (1961) Twenty-year studies with the ballistocardiograph the relation between the amplitude of the first record of ‘healthy’. Circulation 23:714–732Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lee WK, Yoon H, Jung DW, Hwang SH, Park KS (2015) Ballistocardiogram of baby during sleep. In: Proceedings of annual international conference IEEE engineering in medicine and biology society (EMBS), vol 2015–Novem, pp 7167–7170Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Watanabe K, Watanabe T, Watanabe H, Ando H, Ishikawa T, Kobayashi K (2005) Noninvasive measurement of heartbeat, respiration, snoring and body movements of a subject in bed via a pneumatic method. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 52(12):2100–2107Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jung DW, Hwang SH, Yoon HN, Lee Y-JG, Jeong D-U, Park KS (2014) Nocturnal awakening and sleep efficiency estimation using unobtrusively measured ballistocardiogram. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 61(1): 131–138Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zhao W, Ni H, Zhou X, Song Y, Wang T (2015) Identifying sleep apnea syndrome using heart rate and breathing effort variation analysis based on ballistocardiography. In: 2015 37th Annual International Conference on IEEE Engineering Medicine and Biology Society, vol 2015, pp 4536–4539Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zink MD et al (2015) Heartbeat cycle length detection by a ballistocardiographic sensor in atrial fibrillation and sinus rhythm. Biomed Res Int 2015:840356Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tavakolian K (2016) Systolic time intervals and new measurement methods. Cardiovasc Eng Technol 7(2):118–125Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Eleuteri E et al (2016) Prognostic value of angiopoietin-2 in patients with chronic heart failure. Int J Cardiol 212:364–368Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Etemadi M et al (2014) Tracking clinical status for heart failure patients using ballistocardiography and electrocardiography signal features. In: 2014 36th Annual International Conference on IEEE Engineering Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC 2014, vol 94143, pp 5188–5191Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jensen AS et al (2014) Effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy on the first heart sound energy. Comput Cardiol 2014(41):29–32Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Marcus FI et al (2007) Accelerometer-derived time intervals during various pacing modes in patients with biventricular pacemakers: comparison with normals. PACE 30(12):1476–1481Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Giorgis L et al (2008) Analysis of cardiac micro-acceleration signals for the estimation of systolic and diastolic time intervals in cardiac resynchronization therapy. In: Computing in cardiology, pp 393–396Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Donal E et al (2011) Endocardial acceleration (sonR) vs. ultrasound-derived time intervals in recipients of cardiac resynchronization therapy systems. Europace 13(3):402–408Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wilson R, Bamrah V, Lindsay J Diagnostic accuracy of seismocardiography compared with electrocardiography for the anatomic and physiologic diagnosis of coronary artery disease during exercise. Am J 71(August 1989, 1993)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Salerno DM, Zanetti JM, Green LA, Mooney MR, Madison JD, Van Tassel RA (1991) Seismocardiographic changes associated with obstruction of coronary blood flow during balloon angioplasty. Am J Cardiol 68(2): 201–207Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Becker M et al (2013) Simplified detection of myocardial ischemia by seismocardiography: differentiation between causes of altered myocardial function. Herz (April): 1–7Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Winther S et al (2016) Diagnosing coronary artery disease by sound analysis from coronary stenosis induced turbulent blood flow: diagnostic performance in patients with stable angina pectoris. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 32(2):235–245Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lewis RP, Leighton RF, Forester WF, Weissler AM (1974) Systolic time intervals. In: Noninvasive cardiology. Grune & Stratton, New York, p 300:400Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Crow R, Hannan P, Jacobs D, Hedquist L, Salerno D (1994) Relationship between seismocardiogram and echocardiogram for events in the cardiac cycle. Am J Noninvasive Cardiol 8(39):39–46Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tavakolian K, Blaber AP, Ngai B, Kaminska B (2010) Estimation of hemodynamic parameters from seismocardiogram. In: Computing in cardiology, pp 1055–1058Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Di Rienzo M, Vaini E, Lombardi P (2015) Use of seismocardiogram for the beat-to-beat assessment of the pulse transit time: a pilot study. In: Proceedings of annual international conference IEEE engineering in medicine and biology society (EMBS), vol 2015–November, pp 7184–7187Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Javaid AQ, Fesmire NF, Weitnauer MA, Inan OT (2015) Towards robust estimation of systolic time intervals using head-to-foot and dorso-ventral components of sternal acceleration signals. In: 2015 IEEE 12th international conference on wearable and implantable body sensor networks, BSN 2015Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Inan OT, Etemadi M, Paloma A, Giovangrandi L, Kovacs GTA (2009) Non-invasive cardiac output trending during exercise recovery on a bathroom-scale-based ballistocardiograph. Physiol Meas 30(3): 261–274Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gomez-Clapers J, Serra-Rocamora A, Casanella R, Pallas-Areny R (2014) Towards the standardization of ballistocardiography systems for J-peak timing measurement. Meas J Int Meas Confed 58:310–316Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gomez-clapers J, Casanella R, Pallas-areny R (2016) Direct pulse transit time measurement from an electronic weighing scale. In: Computing in cardiology, pp 773–776Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wick CA, McClellan JH, Inan OT, Tridandapani S (2015) Seismocardiography-based detection of cardiac quiescence. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 62(8): 2025–2032Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ashouri H, Orlandic L, Inan OT (2016) Unobtrusive estimation of cardiac contractility and stroke volume changes using ballistocardiogram measurements on a high bandwidth force plate. Sensors (Switzerland), 16(6)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tavakolian K, Dumont GA, Houlton G, Blaber AP (2014) Precordial vibrations provide noninvasive detection of early-stage hemorrhage. Shock 41(2): 91–96Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mukkamala R et al (2015) Toward ubiquitous blood pressure monitoring via pulse transit time: theory and practice. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 62(8):1879–1901Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kim CS, Carek AM, Mukkamala R, Inan OT, Hahn JO (2015) Ballistocardiogram as proximal timing reference for pulse transit time measurement: potential for cuffless blood pressure monitoring. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 62(11):2657–2664Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Verma AK, Fazel-rezai R, Blaber A, Tavakolian K (2015) Pulse transit time extraction from seismocardiogram and its relationship with pulse pressure. In: Computing in cardiology, pp 2–5Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ahlström C (2008) Nonlinear phonocardiographic signal processing. Linkoping UniversityGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Khosrow-Khavar F, Tavakolian K, Blaber A, Zanetti J, Fazel-Rezai R, Menon C (2014) Automatic annotation of seismocardiogram with high frequency precordial accelerations. IEEE J Biomed Heal Inform. (in Press)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Khosrow-Khavar F, Tavakolin K, Blaber A, Menon C (2016) Automatic and robust delineation of the fiducial points of the seismocardiogram signal for non-invasive estimation of cardiac time intervals. IEEE Trans Biomed EngGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Pan J, Tompkins WJ (1985) A real-time QRS detection algorithm. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 32(3):230–236Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jang DG, Park SH, Hahn M (2014) Framework for automatic delineation of second derivative of photoplethysmogram: a knowledge-based approach. J Med Biol Eng 34(6):547–553Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pandia K, Inan OT, Kovacs GTA, Giovangrandi L (2012) Extracting respiratory information from seismocardiogram signals acquired on the chest using a miniature accelerometer. Physiol Meas 33(10): 1643–1660Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Khosrow-khavar F et al (2015) Automatic annotation of seismocardiogram with high frequency precordial accelerations. IEEE J Biomed Heal Inform 19(4):1428–1434Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Shin JH, Choi BH, Lim YG, Jeong DU, Park KS (2008) Automatic ballistocardiogram (BCG) beat detection using a template matching approach. In: Conference proceedings of IEEE engineering medicine and biology society, vol 2008, no c, pp 1144–1146Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Akhbardeh A, Kaminska B, Tavakolian K (2007) BSeg++: a modified blind segmentation method for ballistocardiogram cycle extraction. In: IEEE EMBC, vol 2007, pp 1896–1899Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gomez-clapers J, Casanella R, Pallas-areny R (2016) A novel algorithm for fast BCG cycle extraction in ambulatory scenarios. In: Computing in cardiology, pp 357–360Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Xu W, Sandham WA, Fisherm AC, Conway M (1996) Wavelet transform analysis of the seismocardiogram. In: Proceedings of IEEE-SP international symposium on time-frequency time-scale analysis, pp 481–484Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Postolache O, Girao PS, Postolache G, Pereira M (2007) Vital signs monitoring system based on EMFi sensors and wavelet analysis. In: 2007 IEEE instrumentation & measurement technology conference IMTC 2007, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gilaberte S, Gómez-Clapers J, Casanella R, Pallas-Areny R (2010) Heart and respiratory rate detection on a bathroom scale based on the ballistocardiogram and the continuous wavelet transform. In: 2010 Annual international conference on IEEE engineering and medicine biology society EMBC’10, pp 2557–2560Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Alvarado-Serrano C, Luna-Lozano PS, Pallàs-Areny R (2016) An algorithm for beat-to-beat heart rate detection from the BCG based on the continuous spline wavelet transform. Biomed Signal Process Control 27(May):96–102Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bruser C, Stadlthanner K, Brauers A, Leonhardt S (2010) Applying machine learning to detect individual heart beats in ballistocardiograms. In: Conference proceedings of IEEE engineering and medicine biology society, vol 2010, pp 1926–1929Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bruser C, Stadlthanner K, de Waele S, Leonhardt S (2011) Adaptive beat-to-beat heart rate estimation in ballistocardiograms. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 15(5):778–786Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Brueser C, Winter S, Leonhardt S (2013) Robust inter-beat interval estimation in cardiac vibration signals. Physiol Meas 34(2):123–138Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Paalasmaa J, Toivonen H, Partinen M (2015) Adaptive heartbeat modeling for beat-to-beat heart rate measurement in ballistocardiograms. IEEE J Biomed Heal Inform 19(6):1945–1952Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jafari Tadi M et al (2016) A real-time approach for heart rate monitoring using a Hilbert transform in seismocardiograms. Physiol Meas 37(11): 1885–1909Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    De Ridder S, Migeotte PF, Neyt X, Pattyn N, Prisk GK (2011) Three-dimensional ballistocardiography in microgravity: a review of past research. In: Proceedings of annual international conference IEEE engineering in medicine and biology society (EMBS), pp 4267–4270Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kim C-S et al (2016) Ballistocardiogram: mechanism and potential for unobtrusive cardiovascular health monitoring. Sci Rep 6:1–6Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Casanella R, Gomez-clapers J, Hernandez-urrea M, Pallas-areny R (2016) Impact of the mechanical interface on BCG signals obtained from electronic weighing scales. In: Computing in cardiology, pp 285–288Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Da He D, Winokur ES, Sodini CG (2011) A continuous, wearable, and wireless heart monitor using head ballistocardiogram (BCG) and head electrocardiogram (ECG). In: Proceedings of annual international conference IEEE engineering in medicine and biology society (EMBS), pp 4729–4732Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Javaid AQ, Wiens AD, Fesmire NF, Weitnauer MA, Inan OT (2015) Quantifying and reducing posture-dependent distortion in ballistocardiogram measurements. IEEE J Biomed Heal Inform 19(5):1549–1556Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wiens A, Etemadi M, Klein L, Roy S, Inan OT (2014) Wearable ballistocardiography: preliminary methods for mapping surface vibration measurements to whole body forces. In: 2014 36th Annual international conference IEEE engineering in medicine and biology society EMBS, 2014, vol 94143, pp 5172–5175Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Wiens A, Etemadi M, Roy S, Klein L, Inan O (2014) Towards continuous, non-invasive assessment of ventricular function and hemodynamics: wearable ballistocardiography. IEEE J Biomed Heal Inform. PP(99): 1Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramon Casanella
    • 1
  • Farzad Khosrow-khavar
    • 2
  • Samuel Schmidt
    • 3
  • John Zanetti
    • 4
  • Kouhyar Tavakolian
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Universitat Polytecnica CatalunyaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Simon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada
  3. 3.Aalborg UniversityAalborgDenmark
  4. 4.Acceleron MedicalNorth AndoverUSA
  5. 5.University of North DakotaNorth DakotaUSA

Personalised recommendations