Symptoms related to anorectal diseases are common among patients presenting to gastroenterologists and are sometimes challenging to diagnose and manage. During daily endoscopy practice, anorectal lesions are poorly recognized probably due to a lack of understanding and knowledge. Painless rectal bleeding and anal pain are usually caused by hemorrhoids or anal fissures. However, a high index of suspicion for anorectal malignancy should be maintained in small ulceration or fissure with slightly exophytic and indurated margins, as well as ulceroinfiltrative mass. This chapter will discuss the endoscopic diagnosis of common anorectal diseases, such as hemorrhoids, anal fissures, and hypertrophied anal papillae, as well as important conditions seen less frequently, such as anal malignancy.
KeywordsAnorectal disease Hemorrhoid Anal fissure Anal fistula Anal cancer
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