Advertisement

Ultrasonography in Labor

  • Neha Gupta
Chapter

Abstract

Monitoring of labor is possible with ultrasound. In fact, it acts as an adjunct to digital pelvic examination and adds further objectiveness to it. Sonopartogram is an effective tool to monitor the progress of labor, thereby minimizing and not replacing the per vaginum examination. It is a very good practice to use ultrasound and look for head position and rotation prior to the application of vacuum or forceps, hence decreasing the failure rates. Ultrasound provides a great clarity regarding the dynamics of labor.

References

  1. 1.
    Buckmann EJ, Libhaber E. Accuracy of cervical assessment in the active phase of labour. BJOG. 2007;114:833–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tuffnell DJ, Bryce F, Johnson N, Lilford RJ. Simulation of cervical changes in labour: reproducibility of expert assessment. Lancet. 1989;2:1089–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barber M, Gutierrez L, Plasencia W, Valle L, Garcia-Hernandez JA. Role of ultrasound in the labor ward. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010;30(3):241–3.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ghi T, Contro E, Farina A, Nobile M, Pilu G. Three-dimensional ultrasound in monitoring progression of labor: a reproducibility study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010;36(4):500–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hassan WA, Eggebø TM, Ferguson M, Lees C. Simple two-dimensional ultrasound technique to assess intra-partum cervical dilatation: a pilot study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2013;41:413–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Inducing labour (Clinical Guideline 70). 2008. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG70. Accessed 13 March 2019.
  7. 7.
    Crowley P. Interventions for preventing or improving the outcome of delivery at or beyond term. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;2:CD000170.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pandis GK, Papageorghiou AT, Ramanathan VG, Thompson MO, Nicolaides KH. Preinduction sonographic measurement of cervical length in the prediction of successful induction of labour. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2001;18(6):623–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Park KH, Kim SN, Lee SY, Jeong EH, Jung HJ, Oh KJ. Comparison between sonographic cervical length and Bishop score in preinduction cervical assessment: a randomized trial. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2011;38:198–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pereira S, Frick AP, Poon LC, Zamprakou A, Nicolaides KH. Successful induction of labor: prediction by preinduction cervical length, angle of progression and cervical elastography. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2014;44:468–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rao A, Celik E, Poggi S, Poon L, Nicolaides K. Cervical length and maternal factors in expectantly managed prolonged pregnancy: prediction of onset of labor and mode of delivery. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2008;32:646–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Westover T, Knuppel RA. Modern management of clinical chorioamnionitis. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 1995;3:123–1132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sherer DM, Miodovnik M, Bradley KS, Langer O. Intrapartum fetal head position I: comparison between transvaginal digital examination and transabdominal ultrasound assessment during the active stage of labor. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2002;19:258–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Akmal S, Tsoi E, Kametas N, Howard R, Nicolaides KH. Intrapartum sonography to determine fetal head position. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2002;12:172–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zahalka N, Sadan O, Malinger G, Liberati M, Boaz M, Glezerman M, et al. Comparison of transvaginal sonography with digital examination and transabdominal sonography for the determination of fetal head position in the second stage of labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;193(2):381–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Youssef A, Ghi T, Piluisuog G. How to perform ultrasound in labor: assessment of fetal occiput position. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2013;41:476–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dupuis O, Silveira R, Zentner A, Dittmar A, Gaucherand P, Cucherat M, Redarce T, Rudigoz RC. Birth simulator: reliability of transvaginal assessment of fetal head station as defined by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists classification. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192:868–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eggebø TM, Heien C, Økland I, Gjessing LK, Romundstad P, Salvesen KA. Ultrasound assessment of fetal head-perineum distance before induction of labor. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2008;32(2):199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hassan WA, Eggebø T, Ferguson M, Gillett A, Studd J, Pasupathy D, Lees CC. The sonopartogram: a novel method for recording progress of labor by ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2014;43:189–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Maticot-Baptista D, Ramanah R, Collin A, Martin A, Maillet R, Riethmuller D. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of fetal head engagement. A preliminary French prospective study. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod. 2009;38(6):474–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kalache KD, Duckelmann AM, Michaelis SAM, Lange J, Cichon G. Transperineal ultrasound imaging in prolonged second stage of labor with occipitoanterior presenting fetuses: how well does the ‘angle of progression’ predict the mode of delivery? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2009;33:326–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Barbera AF, Pombar X, Perugino G, Lezotte DC, Hobbins JC. A new method to assess fetal head descent in labor with transperineal ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2009;33(3):313–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Henrich W, Dudenhausen J, Fuchs I, Kämena A, Tutschek B. Intrapartum translabial ultrasound (ITU): sonographic landmarks and correlation with successful vacuum extraction. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2006;28(6):753–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ghi T, Farina A, Pedrazzi A, Rizzo N, Pelusi G, Pilu G. Diagnosis of station and rotation of the fetal head in the second stage of labor with intrapartum translabial ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2009;33:331–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Youssef A, Maroni E, Ragusa A, De Musso F, Salsi G, Iammarino MT, Paccapelo A, Rizzo N, Pilu G, Ghi T. Fetal head–symphysis distance: a simple and reliable ultrasound index of fetal head station in labor. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2013;41:419–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gilboa Y, Kivilevitch Z, Spira M, Kedem A, Katorza E, Moran O, Achiron R. Head progression distance in prolonged second stage of labor: relationship with mode of delivery and fetal head station. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2013;41:436–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lucidi RS, Blumenfeld LA, Chez RA. Cervimetry, a review of methods for measuring cervical dilatation during labour. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2000;55:312–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zimerman AL, Smolin A, Maymon R, Weinraub Z, Herman A. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. Intrapartum measurement of cervical dilatation using translabial 3-D ultrasonography: correlation with digital examination and interobserver and intraobserver agreement assessment. J Ultrasound Med. 2009;28:1289–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stuart IP, Lindow SW, van der Elst CD. Fetal acidosis and Doppler velocimetry of umbilical artery in labour. UOG. 1993;3:256–9.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ghi T, Youssef A, Maroni E, Arcangeli T, De Musso F, et al. Intrapartum transperineal ultrasound assessment of fetal head progression in active second stage of labor and mode of delivery. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2013;41:430–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Blasi A, D’Amico R, Fenu V, Volpe A, Fuchs I, Henrich W, Mazza V. Sonographic assessment of fetal spine and head position during the first and second stages of labor for the diagnosis of persistent occiput posterior position: a pilot study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010;35:210–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Akmal S, Kametas N, Tsoi E, Hargreaves C, Nicolaides KH. Comparison of transvaginal digital examination with intrapartum sonography to determine fetal head position before instrumental delivery. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2003;21:437–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Krapp M, Baschat AA, Hankeln M, Gembruch U. Gray scale and color Doppler sonography in the third stage of labor for early detection of failed placental separation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2000;15:138–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neha Gupta
    • 1
  1. 1.Jaypee HospitalNoidaIndia

Personalised recommendations