Fungal Tannase: Recent Advances and Industrial Applications

  • Sunny Dhiman
  • Gunjan MukherjeeEmail author
  • Anu Kumar
  • Papiya Mukherjee
  • Shilpa A. Verekar
  • Sunil K. Deshmukh


Tannin acyl hydrolase (E.C. universally known as tannase is an inducible enzyme that predominantly acts on tannins. Tannins have been documented as high molecular weight polyphenolic compounds possessing molecular weight in the range (500–3000 kDa). Tannins are the second most abundant polyphenolic compounds existing in nature after lignin. Tannins are water-soluble secondary metabolites existing in abundance in plants. Apparently, tannins exist in plants as the fourth most bountiful constituents behind cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Tannins possess acrid properties and have the inherent capability of binding with proteins, cellulose, gelatin, and pectin thereby forming insoluble complexes. Tannases derived from microbial sources have enormous applications in various industries. This tremendous biocatalytic potential of tannase is attributed to their higher stability and feasibility. Tannases have a vast range of applications in various industrial bioprocesses ranging from food, feed to chemical as well as pharma sector. Furthermore, tannery effluents are loaded with surplus amount of tannins, predominantly polyphenols, which are life-threatening pollutants and pose severe environmental and health hazards. As a matter of fact, tannases can be substantially utilized for degrading the tannins that predominantly exist in the tannery effluents, thus offering a much cheaper treatment for the eviction of these compounds. The enzyme also finds significant utilization in cosmetic industries to so as to lessen the extensive turbidity of plant extracts. Tannase can also be predominantly used for high-grade leather tannins preparation in the leather industry. The present chapter is an attempt to emphasize on microbial sources, substrates for maximal tannase production, factors governing tannase production, mechanism of action, purification, immobilization, inhibitors as well as widespread applications of tannases. The advancements in molecular tools and techniques have enabled a better understanding of tannase structure, underlying mechanism of its action as well as the more precise understanding of various process parameters governing tannase production. Over the years, tannases have witnessed a significant rise in their utilization in commercial sector; thus, there is always an opportunity for researchers to search out novel tannases with better and improved characteristics.


Polyphenolics Tannase Purification Characterization Immobilization 


  1. Abdel-Nabey MA, Sherif AA, El-Tanash AB, Mankarios AT (1999) Immobilization of Aspergillus oryzae tannase and properties of the immobilized enzyme. J Appl Microbiol 87:108–114Google Scholar
  2. Aguilar CN, Augur C, Torres FE, Gonzalez GV (2001) Production of tannase by Aspergillus niger Aa-20 in submerged and solid-state fermentation: influence of glucose and tannic acid. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 26:296–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aguilar CN, Rodriguez R, Gutierrez-Sanchez G, Augur C, Favela-Torres E, Prado- Barragan LA, Ramirez-Coronel A, Contreras-Esquivel JC (2007) Microbial tannases: advances and perspectives. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 76:47–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aguilera-Carbo A, Augur C, Prado-Barragan LA, Favela-Torres E, Aguilar CN (2008) Microbial production of ellagic acid and biodegradation of ellagitannins. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 78:189–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahmed ME, Rahman A (2014) Detection of the perfect condition to produce the tannase from Aspergillus niger at different medium. J Babylon Univ Pure Appl Sci 22:1363–1371Google Scholar
  6. Aoki K, Shinke R, Nishira H (1976a) Purification and some properties of yeast tannase. Agric Biol Chem 40:79–85Google Scholar
  7. Aoki K, Shinke R, Nishira H (1976b) Chemical composition and molecular weight of yeast tannase. Agric Biol Chem 40:297–302Google Scholar
  8. Bagga J, Pramanik SK, Pandey V (2015) Production and purification of tannase from Aspergillus aculeatus using plant derived raw tannin. Int J Sci Eng Technol 4:50–55Google Scholar
  9. Bajpai B, Patil S (1997) Introduction of tannin acyl hydrolase (EC activity in some members of fungi imperfecti. Enzyme Microb Technol 20:612–614Google Scholar
  10. Banerjee D, Mondal KC, Pati BR (2001) Production and characterization of extracellular and intracellular tannase from newly isolated Aspergillus aculeatus DBF 9. J Basic Microbiol 41:313–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barthomeuf C, Regerat F, Pourrat H (1994) Production, purification and characterization of a tannase from Aspergillus niger LCF8. J Ferment Bioeng 77:320–323Google Scholar
  12. Battestin V, Macedo GA (2007) Effects of temperature, pH and additives on the activity of tannase produced by Paecilomyces variotii. Electron J Biotechnol 10:191–199Google Scholar
  13. Beena PS, Soorej MB, Elyas KK, Sarita GB, Chandrasekaran M (2010) Acidophilic tannase from marine Aspergillus awamori BTMFW032. J Microbiol Biotechnol 20:1403–1414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Belmares R, Contreras-Esquivel JC, Rodriguez-Herrera R, Coronel AR, Aguilar CN (2004) Microbial production of tannase: an enzyme with potential use in food industry. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft Technol 37:857–64Google Scholar
  15. Belur PD, Mugeraya G (2011) Microbial production of tannase: state of the art. Res J Microbiol 6:25–40Google Scholar
  16. Belur PD, Goud R, Goudar DC (2012) Optimization of culture medium for novel cell associated tannase production from Bacillus massiliensis using response surface methodology. J Microbiol Biotechnol 22:199–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bhardwaj R, Bhat TK, Singh B (2003) Purification and characterization of tannin acyl hydrolase from A. niger MTCC-2425. J Basic Microbiol 43:449–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bhat TK, Singh B, Sharma OP (1998) Microbial degradation of tannins-A current perspective. Biodegradation 9:343–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Boadi DK, Neufeld RJ (2001) Encapsulation of tannase for the hydrolysis of tea tannins. Enzyme Microb Technol 28:590–595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Boer E, Bode R, Mock HP, Piontek M, Kunze G (2009). Atan Ip-an extracellular tannase from the dimorphic yeast Arxula adeninivorans: molecular cloning of ATAN1 gene and characterization of the recombinant enzyme. Yeast 26:323–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chhokar V, Sangwan M, Beniwal V, Nehra K, Nehra KS (2009) Effect of additives on the activity of tannase from Aspergillus awamori MTCC9299. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 9:8813–8817Google Scholar
  22. Chhokar V, Seema, Beniwal V, Salar RK, Nehra KS, Kumar A, Rana JS (2010) Purification and characterization of extracellular tannin acyl hydrolase from Aspergillus heteromorphus MTCC 8818. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng 15:793–799Google Scholar
  23. Choi HJ, Song JH, Bhatt LR, Baek SH (2010) Anti-human rhinovirus activity of gallic acid possessing antioxidant capacity. Phytotherapy Res 24:1292–1296Google Scholar
  24. Costa A, Ribeiro W, Kato E, Monteiro R, Peralta R (2008) Production of tannase by Aspergillus tamarii in submerged cultures. Barazilian Archeives Biol Biotechnol 51:399–404Google Scholar
  25. Costa AM, Kadowaki MK, Minozzo MC, Souza CGM, Boer CG, Bracht A, Peralta RM (2012) Production, purification and characterization of tannase from Aspergillus tamarii. Afr J Biotech 11:391–398Google Scholar
  26. Deepa C, Lavanya B, Latha S (2015) Purification of tannase from Aspergillus niger under solid state fermentation. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 4:993–1001Google Scholar
  27. Deschamps AM, Otuk G, Lebault JM (1983) Production of tannase and degradation of chestnut tannins by bacteria. J Ferment Technol 61:55–59Google Scholar
  28. Farias GM, Gorbea C, Elkins JR, Griffin GJ (1994) Purification, characterization and substrate relationships of the tannase from Cryphonectria parasitica. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 44:51–63Google Scholar
  29. Frutos P, Hervas G, Giraldez FJ, Mantecon AR (2004) Review: tannins and ruminant nutrition. Spanish J Agric Res 2:191–202Google Scholar
  30. Goncalves HB, Riul AJ, Terenzi HF, Jorge JA, Guimaraes LHS (2011) Extracellular tannase from Emericella nidulans showing hypertolerance to temperature and organic solvents. J Mol Catal B Enzym 71:29–35Google Scholar
  31. Hadi TA, Banerjee R, Bhattarcharyya BC (1994) Optimization of tannase biosynthesis by a newly isolated Rhizopus oryzae. Bioprocess Eng 11:239–243Google Scholar
  32. Hamdy HS (2008) Purification and characterisation of a newly isolated stable long-life tannase produced by F. subglutinans (Wollenweber and Reinking) Nelson et al. J Pharm Innovations 3:142–151Google Scholar
  33. Hatamoto O, Watarai T, Kikuchi M, Mizusawa K, Sekine H (1996) Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding tannase and a structural study of the tannase subunit from Aspergillus oryzae. Gene 175:215–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hota SK, Dutta JR, Banerjee R (2007) Immobilization of tannase from Rhizopus oryzae and its efficiency to produce gallic acid from tannin rich agro-residues. Indian J Biotechnol 6:200–204Google Scholar
  35. Kasieczka-Burnecka M, Kuc K, Kalinowska H, Knap M, Turkiewicz M (2007) Purification and characterization of two cold-adapted extracellular tannin acyl hydrolases from an Antarctic strain Verticillium sp. P9. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 77:77–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Kar B, Banerjee R, Bhattacharyya BC (2002) Optimization of physicochemical parameters of gallic acid production by evolutionary operation-factorial design technique. Process Biochem 37:1395–1401Google Scholar
  37. Kar B, Banerjee R, Bhattacharyya BC (2003) Effect of additives on the behavioural properties of tannin acyl hydrolase. Process Biochem 38:1285–1293Google Scholar
  38. Knudson L (1913) Tannic acid fermentation. J Biol Chem 14:159–184Google Scholar
  39. Kuppusamy M, Thangavelu V, Kumar A, Chockalingam (2015) Kinetics and modeling of tannase production using Aspergillus foetidus in batch fermentation. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 7:64–67Google Scholar
  40. Lal D, Divya Shrivastava D, Verma HN, Gardne JJ (2012) Production of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase (E.C. from Aspergillus niger isolated from bark of Acacia nilotica. J Microbiol Biotechnol Res 4:566–572Google Scholar
  41. Lekha PK, Lonsane BK (1997) Production and application of tannin acyl hydrolase. Adv Appl Microbiol 44:215–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Lenin B, Lokeswari N, Reddy D (2015) Separation and optimization of phenolic component from Anacardium occidentales testa by solvent extraction method. World J Pharm Res 4:870–874Google Scholar
  43. Libuchi S, Minoda Y, Yamad K (1967) Studies on tannin acyl hydrolase of microorganisms. Part II. A new method determining the enzyme activity using the change of UV absorption. Agric Biol Chem 31:513–518Google Scholar
  44. Lokeshwari N (2016) Utilization of natural tannins from Anacardium occidentales testa for producing the industrially important gallic acid through submerged fermentation. World J Pharm Res 5(8):861–864Google Scholar
  45. Mahapatra K, Nanda RK, Bag SS, Banerjee R, Pandey A, Szakacs G (2005) Purification, characterization and some studies on secondary structure of tannase from Aspergillus awamori nakazawa. Process Biochem 40:3251–3254Google Scholar
  46. Mahendran B, Raman N, Kim DJ (2006) Purification and characterization of tannase from Paecilomyces variotii: hydrolysis of tannic acid using immobilized tannase. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 70:444–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Manjit AY, Aggarwal NK, Kumar K, Kumar A (2008) Tannase production by Aspergillus fumigatus MA under solid-state fermentation. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 24:3023–3030Google Scholar
  48. Mata-Gomez M, Rodriguez LV, Ramos EL, Renovato J, Cruz-Hernandez MA, Rodriguez R, Contreras J, Aguilar CN (2009) A novel tannase from the xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1. J Microbiol Biotechnol 19:987–996PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Mingshu L, Kai Y, Qiang H, Dongying J (2006) Biodegradation of gallotannins and elllagitannins. J Basic Microbiol 46:68–84Google Scholar
  50. Mondal KC, Banerjee D, Jana M, Pati BR (2001) Colorimetric assay method for determination of the tannin acyl hydrolase (EC activity. Anal Biochem 295:168–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Mosleh H, Naghiha A, Keshtkaran AN, Khajavi M (2014) Isolation and identification of tannin-degrading bacteria from native sheep and goat feces in Kohgiloye and Boyer-Ahmad Province. Int J Adv Biol Biomed Res 2:176–180Google Scholar
  52. Mukherjee G, Banerjee R (2003) Production of gallic acid. Biotechnological routes (Part 1). Chim Oggi 21:59–62Google Scholar
  53. Mukherjee G, Banerjee R, Rintu C (2006) Effects of temperature, pH and additives on the activity of tannase produced by a co-culture of Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus foetidus. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 22:207–212Google Scholar
  54. Murugan K, Al-Sohaibani Saleh A (2010) Biocompatibale removal of tannin and associated color from tannery effluent using the biomass and tannin acyl hydrolase (E.C. enzymes of mango industry solid waste isolate Aspergillus candidus MTCC 9628. Res J Microbiol 5(4):262–271Google Scholar
  55. Murugan K, Saravanababu S, Arunachalam M (2007) Screening of tannin acyl hydrolase (E.C. producing tannery effluent fungal isolates using simple agar plate and SmF process. Biores Technol 98:946–949Google Scholar
  56. Naidu RB, Saisubramanian N, Sivasubramanian S, Selvakumar D, Janardhan S, Puvanakrishnan R (2008) Optimization of tannase production from Aspergillus foetidus using statistical design methods. Current Trends Biotechnol Pharm 2:523–530Google Scholar
  57. Paranthaman R, Vidyalakshmi R, Murugesh S, Singaravadivel K (2009) Optimization of various culture media for tannase production in submerged fermentation by Aspergillus flavus. Adv Biol Res 3:34–39Google Scholar
  58. Prasad L, Khan TH, Jahangir T, Sultana S (2006) Effect of gallic acid on renal biochemical alterations in male Wistar rats induced by ferric nitriloacetic acid. Hum Exp Toxicol 25:523–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Ramirez-Coronel MA, Viniegra-Gonzalez G, Darvill A, Augur C (2003) A novel tannase from Aspergillus niger with β-glucosidase activity. Microbiology 149:2941–2946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Reddy BS, Rathod V (2012) Gallic acid production and tannase activity of Penicillium purpurogenum employing agro based wastes through solid state fermentation: influence of pH and temperature. Asian J Biochem Pharm Res 2:59–62Google Scholar
  61. Rodriguez H, de las Rivas B. Gomez-Cordoves C, Munoz R (2008) Characteriztaion of tannase activity in cell-free extracts of Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748. Int J Food Microbiol 121:92–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Rout S, Banerjee R (2006) Production of tannase under mSSF and its application in fruit juice debittering. Indian J Biotechnol 5:346–350Google Scholar
  63. Sabu A, Kiran GS, Pandey A (2005) Purification and characterization of tannin acyl hydrolase from A. niger ATCC 16620. Food Technol Biotechnol 43:133–138Google Scholar
  64. Muslim SN, Mahammed AN, Musafer HK, A.L_Kadmy IMS, Shatha A, Muslim SN (2015) Detection of the optimal conditions for tannase productivity and activity by Erwinia Carotovora. J Med Bioeng 4(3):198–205Google Scholar
  65. Sanderson GW, Coggon P (1974) Green tea conversion using tannase and natural tea enzyme. U.S. Patent 3:812–266Google Scholar
  66. Scalbert A (1991) Antimicrobial properties of tannins. Phytochemistr 30:3857–3883Google Scholar
  67. Selwal MK, Yadav A, Selwal KK, Aggarwal NK, Gupta R, Gautam SK (2010) Optimization of cultural conditions for tannase production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa IIIB 8914 under submerged fermentation. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 26:599–605Google Scholar
  68. Sharma S, Bhat TK, Dawra RK (2000) A spectrophotometric method for assay of tannase using Rhodonine. Anal Biochem 278:85–89Google Scholar
  69. Sharma S, Agarwal L, Saxena RK (2008) Purification, immobilization and characterization of tannase from Penicillium variable. Biores Technol 99:2544–2551Google Scholar
  70. Skene IK, Brooker JD (1995) Characterization of tannin acyl hydrolase in the ruminal bacterium Selenomonas ruminantium. Anaerobe 1:321–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Srivastava R, Kar R (2009) Characterization and application of tannase produced by Aspergillus niger ITCC 6514.07 on pomegranate rind. Braz J Microbiol 40:782–789PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Subbulaxmi S, Murty VR (2016) Process optimization for tannase production by Bacillus gottheilii M2S2 on inert polyurethane foam support. Biocatalaysis Agric Biotechnol 7:48–55Google Scholar
  73. Teighem V (1867) Sur la fermentation gallique. Comptes Rendus de I’Academie des Sciences (Paris) 65:1091–1094Google Scholar
  74. Yu X, Li Y, Wang C, Dan W (2004) Immobilization of Aspergillus niger tannase by microencapsulation and its kinetics and characteristics. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 40:151–155PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sunny Dhiman
    • 1
  • Gunjan Mukherjee
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anu Kumar
    • 1
  • Papiya Mukherjee
    • 2
  • Shilpa A. Verekar
    • 3
  • Sunil K. Deshmukh
    • 4
  1. 1.University Institute of BiotechnologyChandigarh UniversityMohaliIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia
  3. 3.Mérieux NutriSciencesMahape, Navi MumbaiIndia
  4. 4.TERI-Deakin Nano Biotechnology CentreThe Energy and Resources Institute (TERI)New DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations