New Approaches for Improvement of Diva Vaccines and Their Companion Diagnostic Tests for Foot-and-Mouth Disease and Bluetongue Disease

  • P. Minakshi
  • Anuj Tiwari
  • Beenu Jain
  • Gaya Prasad


Vaccination is one of the effective ways to control disease outbreak and virus circulation both in endemic and disease-free countries. Endemic countries follow vaccination annually as a prophylactic measure subsequently increasing antibody titre of animals. In disease-free countries, emergency vaccination with high PD50 vaccine is done. In both the cases vaccine capable of eliciting long-lasting immune response followed by a robust companion Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA) test is required.

In today’s world, increased globalization and environmental changes make the animals more susceptible to diseases. Livestock viral disease is one of the groups of these diseases which can cause huge economic losses in both endemic and disease-free countries. To control these diseases in the developing countries, long-term control measures need to be applied. Developed countries need to keep a check on the possible incursion of the virus along with a proper backup of emergency vaccines. Due to ethical reasons, slaughtering of animals to control epidemics is unacceptable. Therefore, vaccination to control the spread of virus plays an important role in both developed and developing countries.

In endemic countries vaccination can be used as a prophylactic measure to increase the antibody titre of susceptible animals subsequently preventing disease outbreaks. In disease-free countries in case of outbreak situation, emergency vaccination followed by serosurveillance is done to declare “freedom from disease”. Vaccination can reduce the incidence of the disease; therefore, reliance on observation of clinical signs may not be a possible method of surveillance to demonstrate freedom from infection. Hence, it is paramount to have a negative marker vaccine which induces antibody response against important epitopes and negatively marked with other epitopes. These negatively marked epitopes in vaccines can be used to detect infection in vaccinated animals. This strategy to detect infection is called “DIVA” that is Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals. In the following part, the DIVA vaccines and their companion diagnostic tests for two economically important diseases bluetongue and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are discussed.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Minakshi
    • 1
  • Anuj Tiwari
    • 2
  • Beenu Jain
    • 3
  • Gaya Prasad
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Animal BiotechnologyLUVASHisarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary MicrobiologyGBPUATPantnagarIndia
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary MicrobiologyLUVASHisarIndia
  4. 4.SVPUATMeerutIndia

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