Lymphoid Tissues Associated with Gastrointestinal (GI) Mucosa

  • Takahiro Nagatake
  • Jun Kunisawa
  • Hiroshi KiyonoEmail author


GI mucosa covers huge area of internal but outside of the body and encounters tremendous numbers and amounts of food antigens and nonpathogenic microorganisms, and occasionally expose to pathogens. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue or gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is a key organized lymphoid structure for the regulation and induction of antigen-specific immune responses. In this chapter, we describe the structure, function, and development of several types of GALTs, including Peyer’s patches, cecum patches, colonic patches, isolated lymphoid follicles, mesenteric lymph nodes, and cryptopatches. Lymphoid tissues associated with small intestine and large intestine are not only anatomically but also immunologically segregated for the induction of necessary immune responses. In addition, the GALT development can be divided into pre- and postnatal organogenesis with similarity and differences existing in the molecular and cellular requirement. Prenatal development of GALT is programed in the ontogeny, while postnatal development of GALT is controlled by external stimuli such as microbial stimulation and dietary materials. Therefore, each GALT shares some common features with unique function and developmental requirement which contribute for the creation of dynamism and homeostasis of gut immune system.


Peyer’s patches Cecum patches Colonic patches Isolated lymphoid follicles Mesenteric lymph nodes Cryptopatches 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takahiro Nagatake
    • 1
  • Jun Kunisawa
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Hiroshi Kiyono
    • 5
    • 6
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Vaccine MaterialsCenter for Vaccine and Adjuvant Research, and Laboratory of Gut Environmental System, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN)Ibaraki-cityJapan
  2. 2.International Research and Development Center for Mucosal Vaccines, The Institute of Medical ScienceThe University of TokyoMinato-kuJapan
  3. 3.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyKobe University Graduate School of MedicineKobe-cityJapan
  4. 4.Graduate School of Medicine, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of DentistryOsaka UniversitySuita-cityJapan
  5. 5.Department of Mucosal ImmunologyThe University of Tokyo Distinguished Professor DepartmentMinato-kuJapan
  6. 6.Department of Immunology, Graduate School of MedicineChiba University (CU)Chiba-cityJapan
  7. 7.Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, School of MedicineUniversity of California San Diego (UCSD) and CU-UCSD Center for Mucosal Immunology, Allergy and Vaccines, UCSDSan DiegoUSA

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