Treatment-Resistant Depression: Understandings on the Neurobiological Etiology that Lead to Novel Pharmacological Treatment Options

  • Eunsoo Won
  • Byoung-Joo Ham
  • Yong-Ku KimEmail author


Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) places a great burden not only to patients but society as a whole. A deep understanding of the neurobiological etiology of TRD will aid us to develop effective treatment strategies for TRD. In this chapter, we will discuss the recent findings on neurobiological mechanisms underlying TRD and corresponding novel pharmacological treatment strategies. Genetics and interactions with environmental factors; alterations in neural substrates, neuroinflammatory conditions, and glutamatergic neurotransmission; and glial cell pathology have been discussed. Anti-inflammatory drugs and ketamine have been suggested as novel treatment agents for TRD. Future studies that investigate the long-term efficacies and safety of such new treatment options in TRD are needed.


Treatment-resistant depression Neurobiological etiology Novel pharmacological treatment option 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, College of MedicineKorea UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry, College of MedicineKorea University Ansan HospitalAnsan CityRepublic of Korea

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