Treatment Resistance in Tourette Syndrome

  • Renata RizzoEmail author
  • Mariangela Gulisano


Tourette syndrome (TS) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the presence of multiple motor and phonic tics that begin during childhood and persist for more than 1 year. TS is frequently associated with psychopathology, and its treatment is particularly challenging, as the genetics, neurophysiology, and neuropathology of the disorder remain largely unknown. Moreover, there are currently no guidelines for the treatment of refractory TS. In this chapter, we review routine strategies for the management of refractory TS, as well as the therapeutic potential of novel pharmacological approaches, deep brain stimulation (DBS), and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS).


Tourette syndrome Tics Comorbidities Deep brain stimulation Treatment-refractory Novel treatment 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Child and Adolescent Neurology and Psychiatry Clinics, PoliclinicoCataniaItaly

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