Advertisement

Mechanism of Recovery After Stroke

  • Seong-Ho KohEmail author
Chapter
  • 34 Downloads
Part of the Stroke Revisited book series (STROREV)

Abstract

Stroke is one of the biggest health problems in the world, especially considering the aging global population. Stroke causes diverse neurological sequelae, for which there is still no cure. In the clinic, it is not rare to see patients showing improvement in their neurological sequelae several weeks or months after stroke compared with their status in the early post-stroke stages. These phenomena are thought to be associated with the natural recovery process after stroke. The exact mechanisms underlying this recovery process are not yet known, but several plausible mechanisms have been suggested. The first is synaptic plasticity, which occurs through the processes of axonal sprouting and synaptogenesis. These processes occur in the peri-infarct area of the brain, but can sometimes be seen in the contralateral hemisphere. The second mechanism is neurogenesis, which arises from endogenous neural stem cells in the subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. In this chapter, the suggested plausible mechanisms underlying the natural recovery process that occurs after stroke will be discussed.

References

  1. 1.
    Hebb DO. Organization of behavior. New York, NY: Wiley; 1949.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hess G, Donoghue JP. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression of horizontal connections in rat motor cortex. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 1996;56(1):397–405.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Butefisch CM, Davis BC, Wise SP, Sawaki L, Kopylev L, Classen J, et al. Mechanisms of use-dependent plasticity in the human motor cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97(7):3661–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    He SQ, Dum RP, Strick PL. Topographic organization of corticospinal projections from the frontal lobe: motor areas on the lateral surface of the hemisphere. J Neurosci. 1993;13(3):952–80.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ward NS, Brown MM, Thompson AJ, Frackowiak RS. Neural correlates of outcome after stroke: a cross-sectional fMRI study. Brain. 2003;126(Pt 6):1430–48.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ward NS, Brown MM, Thompson AJ, Frackowiak RS. Neural correlates of motor recovery after stroke: a longitudinal fMRI study. Brain. 2003;126(Pt 11):2476–96.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chollet F, DiPiero V, Wise RJ, Brooks DJ, Dolan RJ, Frackowiak RS. The functional anatomy of motor recovery after stroke in humans: a study with positron emission tomography. Ann Neurol. 1991;29(1):63–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Weiller C, Chollet F, Friston KJ, Wise RJ, Frackowiak RS. Functional reorganization of the brain in recovery from striatocapsular infarction in man. Ann Neurol. 1992;31(5):463–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nhan H, Barquist K, Bell K, Esselman P, Odderson IR, Cramer SC. Brain function early after stroke in relation to subsequent recovery. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2004;24(7):756–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    de Boissezon X, Demonet JF, Puel M, Marie N, Raboyeau G, Albucher JF, et al. Subcortical aphasia: a longitudinal PET study. Stroke. 2005;36(7):1467–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Musso M, Weiller C, Kiebel S, Muller SP, Bulau P, Rijntjes M. Training-induced brain plasticity in aphasia. Brain. 1999;122(Pt 9):1781–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Butefisch CM. Plasticity in the human cerebral cortex: lessons from the normal brain and from stroke. Neuroscientist. 2004;10(2):163–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Heiss WD, Kessler J, Thiel A, Ghaemi M, Karbe H. Differential capacity of left and right hemispheric areas for compensation of poststroke aphasia. Ann Neurol. 1999;45(4):430–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Serrien DJ, Strens LH, Cassidy MJ, Thompson AJ, Brown P. Functional significance of the ipsilateral hemisphere during movement of the affected hand after stroke. Exp Neurol. 2004;190(2):425–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Naeser MA, Martin PI, Nicholas M, Baker EH, Seekins H, Kobayashi M, et al. Improved picture naming in chronic aphasia after TMS to part of right Broca's area: an open-protocol study. Brain Lang. 2005;93(1):95–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mansur CG, Fregni F, Boggio PS, Riberto M, Gallucci-Neto J, Santos CM, et al. A sham stimulation-controlled trial of rTMS of the unaffected hemisphere in stroke patients. Neurology. 2005;64(10):1802–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Carey LM, Abbott DF, Egan GF, Bernhardt J, Donnan GA. Motor impairment and recovery in the upper limb after stroke: behavioral and neuroanatomical correlates. Stroke. 2005;36(3):625–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tombari D, Loubinoux I, Pariente J, Gerdelat A, Albucher JF, Tardy J, et al. A longitudinal fMRI study: in recovering and then in clinically stable sub-cortical stroke patients. NeuroImage. 2004;23(3):827–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ward NS, Cohen LG. Mechanisms underlying recovery of motor function after stroke. Arch Neurol. 2004;61(12):1844–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kleim JA, Hogg TM, VandenBerg PM, Cooper NR, Bruneau R, Remple M. Cortical synaptogenesis and motor map reorganization occur during late, but not early, phase of motor skill learning. J Neurosci. 2004;24(3):628–33.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Uesaka N, Ruthazer ES, Yamamoto N. The role of neural activity in cortical axon branching. Neuroscientist. 2006;12(2):102–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Carmichael ST, Chesselet MF. Synchronous neuronal activity is a signal for axonal sprouting after cortical lesions in the adult. J Neurosci. 2002;22(14):6062–70.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Whishaw IQ, Pellis SM, Gorny BP, Pellis VC. The impairments in reaching and the movements of compensation in rats with motor cortex lesions: an endpoint, videorecording, and movement notation analysis. Behav Brain Res. 1991;42(1):77–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cirstea MC, Levin MF. Compensatory strategies for reaching in stroke. Brain. 2000;123(Pt 5):940–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nishibe M, Barbay S, Guggenmos D, Nudo RJ. Reorganization of motor cortex after controlled cortical impact in rats and implications for functional recovery. J Neurotrauma. 2010;27(12):2221–32.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nudo RJ, Milliken GW. Reorganization of movement representations in primary motor cortex following focal ischemic infarcts in adult squirrel monkeys. J Neurophysiol. 1996;75(5):2144–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Teasell R, Bayona NA, Bitensky J. Plasticity and reorganization of the brain post stroke. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2005;12(3):11–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Carey JR, Kimberley TJ, Lewis SM, Auerbach EJ, Dorsey L, Rundquist P, et al. Analysis of fMRI and finger tracking training in subjects with chronic stroke. Brain. 2002;125(Pt 4):773–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stroemer RP, Kent TA, Hulsebosch CE. Neocortical neural sprouting, synaptogenesis, and behavioral recovery after neocortical infarction in rats. Stroke. 1995;26(11):2135–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Carmichael ST. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of neural repair after stroke: making waves. Ann Neurol. 2006;59(5):735–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wei L, Erinjeri JP, Rovainen CM, Woolsey TA. Collateral growth and angiogenesis around cortical stroke. Stroke. 2001;32(9):2179–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    McNeill TH, Brown SA, Hogg E, Cheng HW, Meshul CK. Synapse replacement in the striatum of the adult rat following unilateral cortex ablation. J Comp Neurol. 2003;467(1):32–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Waites CL, Craig AM, Garner CC. Mechanisms of vertebrate synaptogenesis. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2005;28:251–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Benowitz LI, Carmichael ST. Promoting axonal rewiring to improve outcome after stroke. Neurobiol Dis. 2010;37(2):259–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Temple S. Division and differentiation of isolated CNS blast cells in microculture. Nature. 1989;340(6233):471–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Reynolds BA, Weiss S. Generation of neurons and astrocytes from isolated cells of the adult mammalian central nervous system. Science. 1992;255(5052):1707–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Arvidsson A, Collin T, Kirik D, Kokaia Z, Lindvall O. Neuronal replacement from endogenous precursors in the adult brain after stroke. Nat Med. 2002;8(9):963–70.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Park J, Park HH, Choi H, Kim YS, Yu HJ, Lee KY, et al. Coenzyme Q10 protects neural stem cells against hypoxia by enhancing survival signals. Brain Res. 2012;1478:64–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Morrison SJ, Perez SE, Qiao Z, Verdi JM, Hicks C, Weinmaster G, et al. Transient notch activation initiates an irreversible switch from neurogenesis to gliogenesis by neural crest stem cells. Cell. 2000;101(5):499–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lee JS, Hong JM, Moon GJ, Lee PH, Ahn YH, Bang OY, et al. A long-term follow-up study of intravenous autologous mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in patients with ischemic stroke. Stem Cells. 2010;28(6):1099–106.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Koh SH, Lo EH. The role of the PI3K pathway in the regeneration of the damaged brain by neural stem cells after cerebral infarction. J Clin Neurol. 2015;11(4):297–304.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lanner F, Rossant J. The role of FGF/Erk signaling in pluripotent cells. Development. 2010;137(20):3351–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lie DC, Colamarino SA, Song HJ, Desire L, Mira H, Consiglio A, et al. Wnt signalling regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Nature. 2005;437(7063):1370–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Faigle R, Song H. Signaling mechanisms regulating adult neural stem cells and neurogenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1830(2):2435–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyHanyang University Guri HospitalGuri-SiRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations