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Cerebral Vessel Wall Diseases

  • Keun-Hwa Jung
Chapter
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Part of the Stroke Revisited book series (STROREV)

Abstract

The cerebral arterial wall is composed of three layers, the tunica intima, tunica media, and adventitia, which are common structures in human systemic arteries. As the composition and cellular origin of each component differ according to the vessel locations, such as intracranial, extracranial, anterior, and posterior, the response and vulnerability to injury vary for each arterial site. Cerebral vessel wall diseases are characterized by the partial or complete involvement of vascular wall components by an inciting factor. Typical manifestations include transient ischemic attack, cerebral infarction, or intracranial bleeding by luminal narrowing, thrombus formation, or rupture. The main pathophysiological sequence of cerebral vessel wall diseases includes endothelial dysfunction, smooth muscle cell proliferation or degeneration, extracellular matrix degeneration, inflammation, and rheological stress. This chapter deals with three typical cerebral vessel wall diseases including moyamoya disease, arterial dissection, and vasculitis. The cerebral vessel wall diseases may require early differential diagnosis because they are associated with different therapeutic options. However, the early diagnosis may be difficult because these diseases often share clinical manifestations and angiographic features. Recently, the advent of vessel wall imaging techniques and the increasing availability of pathological studies prompt us to better differentiate the diseases and identify the pathomechanism of each disease. This chapter reviews the advances in the histopathological and clinical data of cerebral vessel wall diseases with the aim of unraveling their pathophysiology.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keun-Hwa Jung
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologySeoul National University HospitalSeoulRepublic of Korea

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